The current study is based on the assessment of sugarcane farming in Khyber Pakhtunkhwa province. From the study, it is clear that the region has high potential of sugarcane production if the right inputs are provided since the demand for sugar in Khyber Pakhtunkhwa and other countries is high. The study is based on both primary and secondary information gathered from the region. Econometric methods of data analyses have been employed. In the study, the goals are to establish the cost and revenue gain in sugarcane cultivation, establish the resource use efficiency in sugarcane production and to examine the constraints faced by Farmers and the appropriate suggestion to overcome these constraints and improve their earnings. From the study, it is evident that efficient production of sugarcane is profitable as revenues exceed costs. Nevertheless resource use efficiency is low due to lack of modern production processes. Low rainfall, labor shortage and lack of access to inputs are the key constraints. To address these challenges irrigation should be enhanced and modern production processes adopted.