Extraverts have been reported to be happier than introverts. The study explored the mechanisms behind differences in the perceived happiness of the introverts and extraverts. The verbatim transcriptions of semi-structured interviews were analyzed through the thematic analysis. Five themes were generated: dissimilar conceptualizations of happiness, differences in the inclination towards happiness, dissimilar loci of happiness and differences in the sources of happiness. The extraverts were more inclined towards short-lived and dynamic nature of happiness whereas permanency, meaningfulness, and stability pervaded in the meaning of happiness by the introverts. The introverts valued internal and achieved sources whereas external and ascribed sources of happiness find expressions in extraverts. Thus, both introverts and extraverts reported perceived happiness that suggested dissimilar sources and mechanisms. Further studies may help a better understanding of the positive life outcomes of personality using qualitative methods and live experiences. Psychological interventions may be developed keeping these findings in mind.Keywords: extraversion; happiness; introversion; thematic analysis; personality.
Using a qualitative approach, we explored the protective roles of joint and nuclear families in shaping the life outcomes of children during COVID-19. Sixteen full-time mothers of children aged 9-12 years (8 each from joint and nuclear families) were interviewed and thematic analysis revealed five major themes viz., negative impacts, differences in positive engagement, emotional protective roles, promotion of positive health habits and activity management. Findings suggest that joint families carry more resources to positively engage their children in creativity, studies, exercise and entertainment as compared to nuclear families. Contrary to nuclear families, joint families gave emphasis to resolve emotional grievances, promote positive emotional engagement and support emotionally. The joint and nuclear families also differed in attending food habits, health grievances and physical exercise of children. The joint families played more positive roles in managing play behaviours, sleep habits, television watching and other activities of children compared to nuclear families. Keywords: children; COVID-19; joint family; life outcomes; nuclear family; thematic analysis.
Objectives: Researchers have reported close links between forgiveness and positive life outcomes for people of all age groups. The study explored the perceived transgressions and forgiveness of the elders using a qualitative research design.Design and Methods: Narrative qualitative research design was employed. The semi-structured interview was used to collect data of 10 elders of old-age homes (Mean age = 67.20, SD = 4.57) and 12 elders residing with their families (Mean age = 69.33, SD = 4.21) which were analysed through thematic analysis.Results: Severe loss, serious neglect and cheating were the major perceived transgressions of the old-age home elders whereas day-to-day issues characterized the perceived transgressions of the family elders. Pseudo-forgiveness was observed in the elders of old-age home because of helplessness and their fear of losing respect while affiliation, perceived harm, the realisation of offence, and perceived consequences of punishment were precursors for the forgiveness in family-living elders. Both the groups acknowledged the role of offence, intention, relationships, attributions and commitment to socio-cultural and moral values in forgiveness.Implications: The differences in the perceived transgressions, poor social support and negative cognitions were significant factors behind the dissimilar forgiveness of the two groups. Cultural conceptualizations of relationships, morality, emotion regulation, health issues, spiritual beliefs and interpersonal resources seem to regulate the forgiveness of the elders. Heterogeneity Hypothesis, implicit theories of relationship, just world belief and stress-buffering theory were used to explain the findings. Practitioners may use forgiveness interventions to improve positive life outcomes of the elders. Practitioners may consider providing social support and reducing negative cognitions to facilitate elders’ forgiveness. Keywords: forgiveness, elders, old-age home, transgressions, thematic analysis.
Self-esteem and self-compassion represent well-known positive self-resources with significant implications for life outcomes of people belonging to individualistic and collectivistic cultures, respectively. Both the constructs have been suggested to shape the nature and extent of self-forgiveness through dissimilar mechanisms. The study examined the mediating role of positive and negative self-compassion between the relationship between self-esteem and self-forgiveness. Employing a convenient sampling, 144 male (M = 22.10, SD = 1.66) and 124 female participants (M = 21.98, SD = 1.90) were chosen for a correlational research design. The findings showed that Self-Esteem and Positive Self-Compassion had significant positive correlations with Self-Forgiveness. Conversely, Negative Self-Compassion exhibited negative correlations with these measures. Self-esteem and Positive Self-Compassion accounted for significant positive variance in Realization & Reparation and Overall Self-Forgiveness and significant negative variability in Attribution. Negative Self-Compassion accounted for positive significant variance in Guilt and negative significant variability in Realization & Reparation and Attribution. Both Positive and Negative Self-Compassion significantly mediated the relationships among Self-Esteem and Realization & Reparation, Guilt and Attribution. It evinced coexistence and working of self-esteem and self-compassion in a collectivistic culture with more pronounced effects of the later. Re-conceptualization of self-compassion is recommended. Keywords self-esteem; positive and negative self-compassion; self-forgiveness; mediation analysis; path analysis.
Hindu Marriage is a sacrament that has been conceived to achieve a variety of worldly and spiritual goals. Some forms of hurt, untruthful or betrayal may involve in a marriage relationship that may significantly impact forgiveness behaviours of one or other member of married couples influencing their flourishing. The study examined the role of some biographic features, the forgiveness of self, others and situations in shaping the well-being of the married Hindu couples. Employing a correlational design, the study recruited 300 married Hindu couples with age ranging from 25 to 50 years by a snowball sampling. Forgiveness and well-being were measured with the help of The Heartland Forgiveness Scale (Thompson et al., 2005) and Mental Health Continuum (Keyes, 2005). The findings showed that education, age, domicile, occupation and years of marriage and the three types of forgiveness exhibited significant positive correlations with the indices of well-being whereas gender, number of children, nature of family (nuclear or joint), number of family members and socioeconomic status showed negative correlations with the same. Employment status and age emerged as the most significant predictors for hedonic and psychological well-being, respectively. Conversely, others forgiveness did the same for social and eudaimonic well-being and flourishing. Indian socio-cultural conditions, the conceptualization of Hindu marriage and relevant earlier studies have been used to discuss the findings. Some biographic attributes, inclination towards postmodern lifestyle and others forgiveness seem to shape the well-being outcomes of the married Hindu couples. Directions of future researchers have been discussed.KeywordsForgiveness; hedonic well-being; eudaimonic well-being; human flourishing; Hindu married couples.
Background: The study explored the basic features of positive body image intending to standardize a scale for it employing an Exploratory Research Design. Participants and Procedure: The study was conducted in two phases. In the first phase, 17 males and 18 females with age range 21 to 30 years were chosen as per the screening criteria based on the scores of body mass index and body appreciation scale. The semi-structured interviews were conducted followed by its verbatim inscription for developing themes and basic descriptions of positive body image. The second phase involved 507 participants (268 males and 239 females) with the age span of 20 to 35 years on whom the newly developed positive body image scale and general health and quality of life measures meant for validation were administered Results: A phenomenon with complex facets, linked with self, social realities and life outcomes, health practices and social relevance were the major themes generated in the first phase. The second phase resulted in the development of a new positive body image scale with 24 items comprising two components namely body appreciation and body effectiveness with desirable psychometric properties.Conclusions: A set of theoretically sound and practically relevant attributes of positive body image was identified. The test-retest reliability showed significant levels while coefficients of correlations of the derived measure with general health and quality of life represented its validity. Further verifications of the findings are recommended. The study may carry implications for researchers, practitioners and policymakers.Keywordspositive body image, body appreciation, body effectiveness, general health, exploratory research design.
Background: Intrapersonal resources are significant preditors of human flourishing. The study examined the mediating role of self-esteem between the relationship of self-forgiveness and human flourishing. Methods: A correlation research design was used. Two hundred and fourteen participants (MAge = 22.07(1.80)) comprising 100 males (MAge = 22.15(1.61)) and 114 females (MAge = 22.00(1.95)) were chosen as the participants by a convenience sampling. Self-esteem, self-forgiveness and human flourishing were measured with standardized tools. Results: The results showed significant interdependence among self-esteem, self-forgiveness and human flourishing as evident in their positive correlations. Self-esteem and self-forgiveness accounted for significant variability in human flourishing. These results are prerequisite condition to further carry out mediation analysis that showed self-esteem to emerge as a significant partial mediator between the relationships between self-forgiveness and human flourishing. Conclusions: Self-esteem represents self-worth and personal values that are essential ingredients to prepare a person to forgive himself/herself that, in turn, may cultivate positive affect and cognition leading one to achieve flourishing. Self-esteem helps to understand transgressing situations and the exact role of the various stakeholders. These positive attributions may have facilitated self-forgiveness and finally flourishing. It was evident that both self-esteem and self-forgiveness are relevant to understand human flourishing and the impacts of self-forgiveness are mediated by self-esteem. In essence, intrapersonal resources carry significance to enhance human flourishing. The findings represent a significant contribution to understanding the relationships among self-esteem, self-forgiveness and human flourishing. Keywordsself-esteem, self-forgiveness, human flourishing, mediation analysis.
Objectives: The recent outbreak of COVID-19 has culminated in the unbearable negative life outcomes for all. The study explored the perceived psychological distress and consequent health outcomes caused by COVID-19. Design: The Narrative Thematic Analysis design was used. Methods: A heterogeneous sample of 18 participants (12 males and 6 females) responded about their experiences of the recent outbreak of COVID-19. The data were collected through a telephonic semi-structured interview that was analyzed through the Thematic Analysis Method. Results: Four themes were generated: perceived psychological distress, lower social support, enhanced religious practices and enhanced negative health outcomes. Extreme anxiety, panic experiences, insecurity, helplessness, hyper-vigilance and negative attributions represented the psychological distress while decreased social interactions and imposed social distancing characterized the perceived social support. Increased reliance on myths, divine interpretations and faith in God showed religious practices. Decreased hunger, insomnia, headache, breathing problems and palpitation were ill-health outcomes.Conclusions: The epidemic was sudden, unknown and fatal that shaped the nature and extent of perceived psychological distress, social support and religious practices. The first two may have caused negative health outcomes while the religious practices maintained equilibrium among the rest three. Immediate trans-disciplinary efforts for the effective prevention, treatment and promotion of the affected people are recommended. KeywordsCOVID-19; pandemic; psychological distress; health consequences; social support; religious practices; narrative thematic analysis.
The study explored the role of two dissimilar familial and religious practices in distinctly shaping independent and interdependent self-affirmations in two value systems surfaced to protect self-integrity and self-worth challenged by the threats of COVID-19. A qualitative method was employed which recruited a heterogeneous sample of 19 participants (10 joint and 9 nuclear families) who reported the consequences of COVID-19 and the roles of familial and religious values in facing the pandemic threats through a semi-structured interview. Five themes were generated: the perceived strong threat of COVID-19, positive roles of joint familial values and the religious values, dissimilar roles of individualistic and collectivistic values as well as traditional and modern religious values. Threats were expressed in the experiences of anxiety, uncertainty and mood fluctuations. Interdependence, affiliation and support were joint familial values whereas worshipping, divine interpretation and spiritual practices denoted traditional religious values. Independence, scientific interpretations and personal focus were individualistic family values. Focus on explicit attributes denoted modern while divine interpretation, will of God and dependency on God reflected traditional religious values. Coexistence of independent and interdependent self-affirmations originating from two distinct familial and religious value systems was observed possibly due to the current transitions in the Indian society. KeywordsCOVID-19; Indian family; narrative thematic analysis; pandemic; religious and familial practices; self-affirmation; social practices; threat.
The study explored the lockdown and quarantine on the perceived psychological distress and other life outcomes of children after the outbreak of COVID-19 in recent past. The study employed the Narrative Thematic Research Design and chose a heterogeneous sample of 20 full-time mothers to report the experiences of the restrictions of their children aged 9-11 years. These mothers were the primary source of data about the impacts of lockdown and quarantine on their children. A telephonic semi-structured interview protocol was used to collect data. Four themes were generated: poor social and emotional responsivity, decreased interest in studies and other creative activities, psychological distress symptoms and negative health outcomes. Anxiety, irritation, quarrelling behaviours, anger, frustration, low feeling, reduced interest in games, boredom etc. were observed in children. Sleep disturbances, complaints of indigestion and multiple complaints of body aches were major negative health outcomes. The findings showed a variety of negative psychological and health outcomes for children due to the extreme restrictions, uncertainty, apprehension, reduced positive engagement and lowered social connection after the outbreak of the pandemic. Preventive and protective measures are recommended with concerted efforts of parents, school and community to guard children against the ill-consequences of current and future pandemics. Keywords: children; COVID-19; life outcomes; pandemic; perceived psychological distress, narrative thematic analysis.
This study explored the nature, dynamics and role of collective-affirmation in attracting mass cooperation and support to check further spreading and to motivate people to observe preventive measures to reduce the casualties of COVID-19. A Narrative Thematic Analysis Design was employed in which a heterogeneous sample (N= 32, Age range = 36-61 years) was chosen through a purposive sampling method. The participants were interviewed about their experiences of lockdown. The novelty, suddenness and incurability of COVID-19 caused a set of perceived psychological distress and danger to individual and collective life. The Janata (public) curfew was perceived as a curfew of the people, by the people and for the people. The lockdown denoted a strong faith of the Indian government in the positive virtues of Indian People and vice versa. The mass support and adherence to the suggested preventive government measures were facilitated by collective-affirmation in the well-known positive Bhartiya (Indian) cultural and moral values. Collective-affirmation inherent in the Bhartiya collective cultural values catalyzed mass behaviours change in the form of adherence to the essential restrictions and recommendations. Collective-affirmation may have occurred due to the faith of the government in the virtues of the Indians and their perceived administrative capability of the government. A culture-specific collective-affirmation seems to emerge which initiated mass behavioural changes. The findings may have implications for changing people to face difficult situations, to accept social policies aimed at eradicating poverty, illiteracy, corruption and violence, and to adopt a healthy lifestyle to enhance their well-being.KeywordsBhartiya cultural heritage; Collective-affirmation; COVID-19; lockdown; mass behaviour change.