Should cashew and pistachio be clinically considered as one allergen?Authors (Last Name and First Name): Manca Enrica1,2, Touati Nidhal1, De Filippo Maria1,3, Carboni Elena1,4, Diaferio Lucia1,5, Demoly Pascal1,6, Caimmi Davide1,6Affiliations :1. Allergy Unit of the Department of Respiratory Diseases, University Hospital of Montpellier, France.2. Pediatric Unit, University Hospital of Foggia, Italy.3. Pediatric Unit, Fondazione IRCCS Policlinico San Matteo, University of Pavia, Italy.4. Pediatric Unit, Ospedale Maggiore, ASST Cremona, Italy.5. Department of Pediatrics, Giovanni XXIII Hospital, Aldo Moro University of Bari, Bari, Italy.6. UMR-S 1136 INSERM-Sorbonne Université, Equipe EPAR – IPLESP, Paris, France.Running title: Allergy to cashew and pistachio
Background: Antiepileptic drugs (AEDs) are widely used for the treatment of epilepsy, but they can be associated with the development of mainly delayed/non-immediate hypersensitivity reactions (HRs). Although these reactions are usually cutaneous, self-limited and spontaneously resolve within days after drug discontinuation, sometime HRs reactions to AEDs can be severe and life threatening. Aim: This paper seeks to show examples on practical management of AEDs HRs in children starting from a review of what it is already known in literature. Results: Risk factors include age, history of previous AEDs reactions, viral infections, concomitant medications and genetic factors. The diagnosis work-up consists of in vivo (Intradermal testing and Patch testing) and in vitro tests [serological investigation to exclude the role of viral infection, lymphocyte transformation test (LTT), cytokine detection in ELISpot assays and granulysin (Grl) in flow cytometry]. Treatment is based on a prompt drug discontinuation and mainly on the use of glucocorticoids. Conclusion: Dealing with AEDs HRs is challenging. The primary goal in the diagnosis and management of HRs to AEDs should be trying to accurately identify the causal trigger and simultaneously identify a safe and effective alternate anticonvulsant. There is therefore an ongoing need to improve our knowledge of HS reactions due to AED medications and in particular to improve our diagnostic capabilities.
Background: Allergy is witnessing major advances, in particular with the advent of biological therapies for treating allergic diseases. Given the novelty of these therapeutics, we aimed to explore by a worldwide survey, the prescription and the management of hypersensitivity reactions (HR) of biological agents (BA) in Allergy. Method: We built up an anonymous online questionnaire, sent out by mail and social media and circulated for 40 days. Results: 348 responses were from 59 countries, with a majority from Europe (62.6%). 97% of responders practiced allergy and 48.5%, exclusively so. Allergy was mentioned as a full specialty in 69.5 % of cases. 71% of responders confirmed the right of prescription of BA for allergists in their country and 78.4 % prescribed BA in their clinical practice. Europe included almost all the allergists who did not have the right of prescribing BA (95.5%), specifically France (91%). The most prescribed BA were Anti IgE (78.1%) and anti IL5 (43.9%). The most declared HR to BA were local reactions (74.1%) followed by anaphylaxis like symptoms (6.8%) and delayed exanthemas (5.1%). Desensitization was considered in 18.9% of cases. These HR were reported in 48.8% of cases. Conclusion: Although BA are now a pillar in the treatment of allergic diseases and allergists are familiar with management of HR associated with BA, their prescription is not authorized for allergists in all countries. BA showed to be generally safe but HR, which may be severe, could occur with a lack of consensus on the management.
Anaphylaxis in children is a potential acute life-threatening systemic hypersensitivity reaction. Anaphylaxis fatality rate is estimated to be 0.65% to 2%. Food is the main anaphylaxis trigger in children, notably cow’s milk, peanuts and tree nuts. Mucocutaneous manifestations are observed in more than 90% of cases, but it is not essential for diagnosis. Deaths are rather secondary to the laryngeal edema, observed in 40-50% of cases. Personal history of asthma, allergy to particular foods such as peanuts and tree nuts, and adolescence are known risk factors for anaphylaxis and more severe reactions. Epinephrine (adrenaline) is the medication of choice for the first-aid treatment of anaphylaxis. However, adrenaline auto-injectors (AAIs) are commercially available in only 32% of world countries. There are still considerable unmet needs in the field of anaphylaxis in children. Therefore, the Montpellier WHO Collaborating Centre aims to start the global actions plan applied to anaphylaxis.
The International Classification of Diseases (ICD) provides a common language for use worldwide as a diagnostic and classification tool for epidemiology, clinical purposes and health management. Since its first edition, the ICD has maintained a framework distributing conditions according to topography, with the result that some complex conditions, such as allergies and hypersensitivity disorders (A/H) including anaphylaxis, have been poorly represented. The change in hierarchy in ICD-11 permitted the construction of the pioneer section addressed to A/H, which may result in more accurate mortality and morbidity statistics, including more accurate accounting for mortality due to anaphylaxis, strengthen classification, terminology and definitions. The ICD-11 was presented and adopted by the 72nd World Health Assembly in May 2019 and the implementation is ongoing worldwide. We here present the outcomes from an online survey undertaken to reach out the allergy community worldwide in order to peer review the terminology, classification and definitions of A/H introduced into ICD-11 and to support their global implementation. Data are presented here for 406 respondents from 74 countries. All of the sub-sections of the new A/H section of the ICD-11 had been considered with good accuracy by the majority of respondents. We believe that, in addition to help during the implementation phase, all the comments provided will help to improve the A/H classification and to increase awareness by different disciplines of what actions are needed to ensure more accurate epidemiological data and better clinical management of A/H patients.
Since the first description of anaphylaxis in 1902, its clinical importance as an emergency condition has been recognized worldwide. Anaphylaxis is a severe, potentially life-threatening systemic hypersensitivity reaction characterized by rapid onset and the potential to endanger life through respiratory or circulatory compromise. It is usually, although not always, associated with skin and mucosal changes. Although the academic/scientific communities have advocated to promote greater awareness and protocols for management of anaphylaxis based on best evidence, there are few efforts documenting feedback as to the success of these efforts. In this document, we review the key unmet needs related to the diagnosis and management of anaphylaxis, propose a public health initiative for prevention measures and a timetable action plan which intends to strengthen the collaboration among health professionals and especially primary care physicians dealing with anaphylaxis that can encourage enhanced quality of care of patients with anaphylaxis. More than calling for harmonized action for best management of anaphylaxis to prevent undue morbidity and mortality, the Montpellier World Health Organization Collaborating Centre here proposes an action plan as a baseline for a global initiative against anaphylaxis. We strongly believe these collaborative efforts are a strong public health and societal priority that is consistent with the overarching goals of providing optimal care of allergic patients and best practices of allergology.