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Autonomous Breakdown of the Allergen Tolerance (Entopy) in the Nose
  • Vladimir KlimovOrcid,
  • Andrew Klimov
Vladimir Klimov
Orcid
Siberian State Medical University
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Andrew Klimov
Siberian State Medical University
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Abstract

Allergen tolerance is an active physiological process opposite to adaptive immune response. Nowadays, understanding of allergen tolerance mechanisms is extremely critical in the course of allergen-specific immunotherapy (ASIT) in atopic diseases [Akdis M, Akdis CA, 2014]. The induction of tolerance involves the multiple regulatory networks of cells and molecules. There are natural T regulatory (nTreg) cells, allergen-specific Treg cells, tolerogenic dendritic (tDC) cells and IL10, IL35, TGF, neurotransmitters, etc. In this review, immune tolerance is initially considered at a glance [Klimov VV, 2019]. Then the review focuses on mechanisms of physiological induction of allergen tolerance throughout the body, and pathogenesis of allergen tolerance breakdown with particular emphasis on both systemic and autonomous starting-off, taking into account two diverse atopic entities (endotypes), conventional allergic rhinitis and local allergic rhinitis (LAR).