Fatty acid metabolism has been widely studied in various organisms. However, fatty acid transport has received less attention even though it plays vital roles for the cells, such as export of toxic free fatty acids or uptake of exogenous fatty acids. Hence, there are important knowledge gaps in how fatty acids cross biological membranes and many mechanisms and proteins involved in these processes still need to be determined. The lack of information is more predominant in microorganisms, even though the identification of fatty acids transporters in these cells could lead to new drug targets or improvements in microbial cell factories. This review provides a thorough analysis of the current information on fatty acid transporters in microorganisms, including bacteria, yeasts and microalgae species. Most information available relates to the model organisms Escherichia coli and Saccharomyces cerevisiae, but transport systems of other species are also discussed. Intracellular trafficking of fatty acids and their transport through organelle membranes in eukaryotic organisms is described as well. Finally, applied studies and engineering efforts using fatty acids transporters are presented to show the applied potential of these transporters and to stress the need for further identification of new transporters and their engineering.