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Human linguatula serrata infection: a systematic review of reported cases
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  • M Keighobadi,
  • Rabeeh Tabaripour ,
  • Ali Sharifpour,
  • Elham Sadat Banimostafavi,
  • Azar Shokri,
  • Hossein Azadeh,
  • Mahdi Fakhar,
  • Hajar Ziaei Hezarjaribi
M Keighobadi
Mazandaran University of Medical Sciences Faculty of Medicine
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Rabeeh Tabaripour
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Ali Sharifpour
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Elham Sadat Banimostafavi
Mazandaran University of Medical Sciences Faculty of Medicine
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Azar Shokri
North Khorasan University of Medical Sciences
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Hossein Azadeh
Mazandaran University of Medical Sciences Faculty of Medicine
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Mahdi Fakhar
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Hajar Ziaei Hezarjaribi
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Abstract

Human linguatulosis is a considerable medical problem in endemic regions. The infection is caused by a cosmopolitanfood-borne zoonoticparasiteLinguatula serrata (L. serrata) belonging to class pentastomida.Adult parasitesreside in upper respiratory system, nasal airways and sinuses of carnivorous animals as their final hosts.Herbivorous and other ruminants as intermediate hosts reserve immatureform of parasite in mesenteric lymph nodes, liver, lungs and spleen. Human get infection with both adult and nymph stages of parasite.Halzoun syndrome(Marrara syndrome) is the most common form of human nasopharyngeal linguatulosis which is transmitted through ingestion of L. serrata nymphs (adult stage) found in intermediate host’s organs and resulting in nasopharyngeal linguatulosis with signs of pharyngitis, salivation, dysphagia, and cough.r. This review includes previous studies on L. serrata conducted in Iran and other countries from 1940 to 2019. A systematic search is undertaken on five English and five Persian databases for English or Persian publications describing human linguatulosiscases in the world .Totally, 30 papers reporting 62human linguatulosiscases from various regions of the world are included in this review.All included papers were from the English databases. The age of patients ranged from 8 to 79 years, and the mean age was 25.8 years. Of all the patients, 41(66.1%) were female and 21(33.9%)were male. The highest number of cases (n = 25) was reported from Sudan.The nasopharynxwas the most commonly reported anatomical location of human linguatulosis cases.As a result, we think that physicians should consider L. serratainfestation in patients attending to the health foundations with complaintssuch as pharyngitis, accompanied by pharyngeal pain,coughing, sneezing and vomiting.