loading page

A review of current and prospective findings concerned with the ‘Landscape of Fear’ concept and its implications
  • Samuel Ashby,
  • Kathan Bandyopadhyay,
  • Georgia Warren
Samuel Ashby
University of Reading
Author Profile
Kathan Bandyopadhyay
University of Reading
Author Profile
Georgia Warren
University of Reading
Author Profile

Abstract

The capacity and extent to which prey species forage is often dependent on the temporal and/or spatial distribution of predators. Predation risk within a given habitat may differ according to the structure of the landscape and ecological community. Predators may frequent selected habitat patches and it is these areas prey are expected to avoid. Aside from the direct removal of prey individuals through predation, the density of prey populations may be altered as a result of a perceived predator presence and the energetically expensive responses initiated. A predator presence may be perceived upon the detection of sensory environmental cues, including a predator’s pheromones. The Landscape of Fear (LOF) concept proposes the exposure to a real or perceived predation threat may disrupt prey distribution and activity. Such an environment may be referred to as a ‘landscape of fear’, though the interspecies complexes and abiotic factors affecting a predator-prey relationship should not be omitted when quantifying the effects of predation. Here, we summarise the initial and more recent publications addressing the LOF theory, identifying known aspects and potential for future research.