The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of NaCl salinity (0, 100 and 300 mM) on the individual response of the quinoa varieties Kcoito (Altiplano Ecotype) and UDEC-5 (Sea-level Ecotype) with physiological and proteomic approaches. UDEC-5 showed an enhanced capacity to withstand salinity stress compared to Kcoito. In response to salinity, we detected overall the following differences between both genotypes: Toxicity symptoms, plant growth performance, photosynthesis performance and intensity of ROS-defense. We found a mirroring of these differences in the proteome of each genotype. Among the 700 protein spots reproducibly detected, 24 exhibited significant abundance variations between samples. These 24 proteins were involved in energy and carbon metabolism, photosynthesis, ROS scavenging and detoxification, stress defense and chaperone functions, enzyme activation and ATPases. A specific set of proteins predominantly involved in photosynthesis and ROS scavenging showed significantly higher abundance under high salinity (300 mM NaCl). The adjustment was accompanied by a stimulation of various metabolic pathways to balance the supplementary demand for energy or intermediates. However, the more salt-resistant genotype UDEC-5 presented a beneficial and significantly higher expression of nearly all stress-related altered enzymes than Kcoito. Salinity, halophyte, quinoa, proteomic, photosynthesis, antioxidant, salt resistance, oxidative stress.