Objective: The aim of this study was to analyze the culture antibiogram results of samples obtained directly from the middle ear and/or mastoid cells in the operating room, and from the external auditory canal in the outpatient. Methods: This study was conducted between 2016-2018 in Microbiology and Otorhinolaryngology Department. Swab cultures were obtained through the external ear canal preoperatively in outpatients. Middle ear swabs and mastoid granulation tissue were collected intraoperatively, respectively. Demographic datas, bacterial identifications and antibiotic susceptibilities were compared in both groups. Results: Two hundred thirty eight patients with chronic otitis media were enrolled in the study. Out of the 238 cases, 86 patients had negative culture results. P. aeruginosa (n=44), Coagulase Negative Staphylococcus (n=33), S. aureus (n=27), Proteus mirabilis (n=16) and E. coli (n=10) were the most common grown bacteria in both groups. Most common identified groups were Gram-positive bacteria (n=92), non-fermenter Gram-negative bacteria (n=55) and Enterobactericeae (n=42). Gram-positive cocci were higher in outpatient group, whereas Enterobactericeae were higher in intraoperative group (p<0.05). Antibiotic susceptibilities of P. aeruginosa and S. aureus were found to be lower especially in the preoperative group (p <0.05). Conclusion: P. aeruginosa was the most common bacteria in both preoperative and intraoperative cultures and high ciprofloxacin resistance of the isolates were remarkable. Although contamination is an issue in samples collected from the external ear canal of outpatients using cotton swabs, similar microorganisms grew in outpatient and intraoperative cultures


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Purpose: Recent studies have shown a relationship between cancer and inflammatory response. The aim of this study is to compare NLR and PLR values, which are inflammatory parameters, in precancerous and cancerous lesions and to determine whether there is a parameter that can be used in the early diagnosis of laryngeal squamous cell carcinoma. Methods:174 patients who were benign as a result of pathology, 122 patients who were malignant, 39 patients who were premalignant (335 patients in total) and 117 normal individuals were included in the study. Data groups were divided into 4 groups as Benign Laryngeal Lesion(BLL), Precancerous Laryngeal Lesion(PLL), Malignant Laryngeal Lesion(MLL) and Control Group(CG). In addition, the PLL group was subdivided into Mild Dysplasia(MiD), Moderate Dysplasia(MoD) and Severe dysplasia-carcinoma in situ (SeD/CIS). NLR, PLR and other parameters were calculated. Results: NLR and PLR values were significantly different between the groups. (p = 0.000, p = 0.002) The mean NLR was higher in the MLL and PLL groups, and was lower in the BLL and control groups. The mean PLR was also higher in the MLL and PLL groups. When the groups were compared in pairs, there was a significant difference between BLL and MLL (p = 0.001) and MLL and CG.(p = 0.006) The PLL group was subdivided into MiD, MoD and SeD / CIS. There was a significant difference in NLR when CG and other subgroups were compared.(p = 0.027) Significant differences were found between CG and SeD when the groups were compared in pairs.(p = 0.007) There was no significant difference between the groups in terms of PLR and dysplasia.(P = 0.516) Conclusion: As revealed in this study, these rates were low in the CG and BLL groups and high in the MLL group, so they could be used as markers to differentiate malignant lesions.