The prevalence, heterogeneity and severity of type 2 inflammatory
diseases, including asthma and atopic dermatitis, continue to rise,
especially in children and adolescents. Type 2 inflammation is mediated
by both the innate and adaptive immune cells and sustained by a specific
subset of cytokines, such as interleukin(IL)‐4, IL‐5,IL‐13, and IgE.
IL-4 and IL-13 are considered signature type 2 cytokines, as they both
have a pivotal role in many of the pathobiological changes featured in
asthma and atopic dermatitis. Several biologics targeting IL-4, IL-5,
and IL-13, as well as IgE, have been proposed to treat severe allergic
disease in the pediatric population with promising results. A better
definition of type 2 inflammatory pathways is essential to implement
targeted therapeutic strategies.