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James Lucocq

and 4 more

Background and Aims Current guidance advises that at least 90% of anterior cruciate ligament reconstructions are performed as day case operations. Same-day surgery rates achieved by surgical units have significant clinical and financial implications. The primary aim of this multi-centre study was to determine the rate of admission and causes for admissions in patients undergoing anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction. Method Patient documentations were studied for those who underwent an elective anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction between January 2015 and April 2019. Contributing factors related to admission length were investigated and included patient age, gender, body mass index (BMI), operating surgeon, operating hospital, American Society of Anaesthesiology (ASA) grade, and position of the patient on the operating list. Both univariate and multivariate analysis was conducted using the STATA/IC 16.1 statistical package. Results The day surgery rate of anterior cruciate ligament reconstructions were 52% (50/95). Patients positioned later on the operating list were more likely to be admitted post-operatively (OR – 4.49; p=0.002; 95% CI – 1.72-11.69) and this was the only factor associated with admission. A large majority of admitted patients (95.6%) were admitted without a clinical cause and were otherwise safe for same-day discharge. Conclusions The day surgery rate for ACL reconstruction remains low, despite an extremely low complication rate. Reconfiguration of the operating lists and positioning anterior cruciate ligament reconstructions earlier in the day will likely increase the same-day discharge rate.

Dinesh Choudhary

and 9 more

Melissa Deniz

and 1 more

Objective: To assess impact of COVID-19 on diagnosis and management of ectopic pregnancy.Design: Retrospective comparative analysis of ectopic pregnancies (EP) between January and July in 2019 (pre-COVID) and 2020.Setting: Performed at Blackpool Victoria Hospital, a district general hospital in Lancashire. There were no changes in health care personnel and EP management guidelines during both periods, however service provision was modified in line with COVID-19 regulations.Population: We identified 27 EP cases of 1780 total pregnancies presented to early pregnancy unit (EPU) in 2019 compared to 22 cases of 1782 pregnancies in 2020.Methods: Data was collected from EPU computerised database, looking at maternal age, site, side, size and gestation at diagnosis, ruptured EP, different management options. A Chi square statistical analysis compared the variables.Main outcome measures: Gestation at diagnosis and cases of ruptured EP. Secondary outcome measures were the different management options.Results: The incidence of EP cases was similar in 2020 and 2019 (22/1782; 1.23% Vs 27/1780; 1.51%, P=0.512). We found more cases of ruptured EP in 2020 compared to 2019 nonetheless statistically insignificant (6/22; 27.3% Vs 5/27; 18.5%, P=0.467). However, a stark difference noted was the gestation of EP diagnosis, 77.3% presented late (>6wks amenorrhoea) in 2020 compared to 2019, proving to be statistically significant (17/22; 77.3% Vs 25/27; 92.6%, P<0.001). Other parameters like maternal age, site and size of EP, and different management options; were not statistically significant.Conclusions: We urge women to seek help as there are infection prevention measures in place, to provide the services required in early pregnancy.

Yuriy Pya

and 8 more

Background. Mechanical circulatory support (MCS) has been applied as an effective therapy for patients with end stage heart failure (HF). The existing donor organ shortage issue in Kazakhstan, and hence long waiting times, have resulted in left ventricular assist device (LVAD) implantation being the predominant surgical treatment method for this condition. The purpose of this study is to analyze clinical outcomes of MCS program data in our Center. Methods. This study involves a retrospective analysis of 324 patients with different types of implantable MCS including LVAD (n=319), fully implantable LVAD (FIVAD, n=2), and total artificial heart (TAH, n=3). FIVAD and TAH cases were analyzed separately from other VAD types due to their small numbers. Results. Initially, LVADs were implanted as bridge-to-transplant (BTT) in 214 (67.1%) of patients and as a destination therapy (DT) in 105 (32.9%) cases, but only 30 (9.4%) patients proceeded to transplant. The overall survival rate of all LVAD patients at years 1, 2, 3, and 4 was 84.3%, 69.7%, 62.8%, and 52.5%, respectively. The distance from the clinic (Nur-Sultan) to patients’ cities of residence (average 1015 ± 668 kilometers) was not associated with patient survival. Conclusions. Developing MCS programs is crucial in providing care for patients with HF. Using LVAD as DT produced satisfactory outcomes with favorable survival rates, which are comparable to the outcomes reported in other studies. Further trials are needed to investigate the results of TAH and FIVAD implantation in order to establish them as an acceptable alternative treatment to heart transplantation.

emel berksoy

and 9 more

We describe the demographic, clinical, and laboratory characteristics of children with COVID 19 in comparison with those of not-laboratory-confirmed cases. We conducted a cross-sectional study on the epidemiological, clinical, radiological, and laboratory characteristics, and outcome of 422 children (aged 0–18 years) with suspected and confirmed COVID 19 admitted to the pediatric emergency department from March 23rd to July 23rd, 2020. Of the 422 children with suspected COVID-19 included in this study, COVID-19 was PCR-confirmed in 78 (18.4%). Fever (51.2%) and cough (43.5%) were the most prominent symptoms in children with confirmed cases. The clinical status of the patients with confirmed COVID-19 was significantly milder than that of those with suspected COVID-19. The proportion of COVID-19 pneumonia cases was 44.4%, 5.5%, 18.7%, and 8.5% for the age groups of ≤ 1, 2–6, 7–12, and ≥ 12 years, respectively. Of the 422 children, 128 (30.3%) underwent nasopharyngeal PCR testing for other respiratory viral pathogens; 21 (16.4%) were infected with viral pathogens other than severe acute respiratory syndrome-related coronavirus-2. Only one patient (4.7%) with confirmed COVID-19 had coinfection with respiratory syncytial virus and rhinovirus. The areas under the receiver-operating characteristics curves were 0.812 for WBCs, 0.752 for neutrophils, 0.717 for lactate dehydrogenase, and 0.708 for lymphocyte for predicting COVID-19 (p ≤ 0.001). Fever and cough or other clinical symptoms or signs should not be considered hallmarks of COVID 19. In this study, the WBC, neutrophil, and lymphocyte counts were predictive of COVID-19 positivity.

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Oktay Ucer

and 3 more

The sinoatrial node in medication-resistant inappropriate sinus tachycardia: to modify or to ablate?Khalil El Gharib1*1Hôtel-Dieu de France, Beirut, Lebanon*Author for correspondence: khalil.gharib@outlook.comKEYWORDS: IST, sinus node modification, sinus node ablation, radiofrequency ablation, surgical ablationNo conflict of interest to discloseFunding: noneInappropriate sinus tachycardia (IST) is defined as a resting heart rate >100 beats per minute (with a mean heart rate >90 beats per minute over 24 hours) associated with highly symptomatic palpitations(1). The syndrome is associated neither with structural heart disease nor with any secondary cause of sinus tachycardia(2) and evidence suggests that enhanced intrinsic automaticity of the sinoatrial node, which can be due to anti-β-adrenergic antibodies, is behind its genesis(3). However, it is benign in terms of clinical outcomes and echocardiographic evidence of ventricular dysfunction(4), being rarely associated with tachycardia-induced cardiomyopathy(3).Patients with IST are essentially treated with ß-blockers to alleviate their symptoms(5). Ivabradine, a drug that inhibits funny calcium channels, particularly abundant in the SA node, showed modest benefit, receiving class IIa recommen­dation in the treatment of IST(4). But, the duration of medical therapy might be indefinite, and, a considerable number of patients would respond inadequately, or have no response, even after prolonged therapy(5). Historically, such patients would have subtotal right atrial excision, atrioventricular junctional ablation with permanent pacemaker implantation, or chemical occlusion of the sinus node artery(6). These options are considered today unacceptable in this setting, and other therapeutic approaches should be unveiled when resistance to medical treatment appears.Electrophysiological study was initially purely diagnostic, but recent advances in technology have allowed us to intervene(7); patients with ventricular and supraventricular tachyarrhythmias are successfully treated with percutaneous catheter procedures. Of these, SA node ablation/ modification has been proposed as alternative approaches in IST that is not responding to medical treatment; trials reported auspicious results, highlighted here.Electrophysiologic mapping to the site of the earliest endocardial activation during either spontaneous sinus tachycardia or isoproterenol-induced sinus tachycardia has rendered these procedures feasible(8). Additionally, combination with intracardiac echocardiography permitted a more accurate electrophysiologic and anatomic localization of the sinoatrial node(9).Sinus node modification is not a focal ablation, but requires complete abolition of the cranial portion of the SA node complex, the one that exhibits the most of the autonomic activity(9). It is defined as successful when the heart rate decreases by 30 beats per minute (bpm) during isoproterenol infusion(8). Short-term success was also defined by other investigators when there was a reduction of the baseline sinus rate to less than 90 bpm and the sinus rate during isoproterenol infusion by more than 20% or by 25%(8). The acute success rate for modification has been varying between 76 and 100 % across trials, while long-term clinical outcomes are modest at best, with reported freedom from IST ranging from 23 to 85%(10).Complications specific to SA node modification include superior vena cava (SVC) syndrome, diaphragmatic paralysis, and sinus node dysfunction(10). And while modification with conventional methods has its setbacks, modification using laser energy can be considered in the setting of IST. This modality creates clear-cut homogenous transmural lesions of the myocardium that comprises the scattered “functional” SA node(11). The burnt myocardium will then heal into a dense fibrous scar, decreasing potential amplitudes. And when adapting laser energy settings to the thickness of the myocardial wall, collateral dam­ages such as esophageal fistulae, lung burns, and phrenic nerve palsy will be avoided(11); thus, this technique may prove itself as a new intriguing alternative for the safe and effective treatment of IST.SA node modification is apt in achieving acute reductions in postprocedural heart rate. However, and as aforementioned, success rates are suboptimal in terms of symptomatic control with a significant recurrence rate(12). Catheter ablation aiming at either total exclusion and obliteration of the SA node has been described and performed, success being defined as a slowing of >50% from the baseline rate of tachycardia along with a junctional escape rhythm(12). With radiofrequency (RF) applications, the earliest local atrial activation time would shift from a cranial location to a more caudal one, usually at the mid-lateral right atrium(5). Reviews have reported that acute success rates were consistently to be as high as 88.9%, with an overall frequency of recurrence of 19.6%, the latter occurring within a wide range of post-ablation intervals, anywhere from a few weeks to several months after the procedure(12). Additionally, Takemoto and colleagues documented a significant drop in B-type natriuretic peptide levels, 6 to 12 months after ablation, suggesting fewer stretching shears on cardiac muscle.Two types of response of the sinus tachycardia to RFA were observed across studies, whether a step-wise reduction in sinus rate accompanying migration of the site of earliest atrial activation in a cranial-caudal direction along the lateral right atrial wall, or an abrupt drop in heart rate in response to RFA at a focal site of earliest atrial activation(13).However, RFA of inappropriate sinus tachycardia requires a large number of applications of radiofrequency energy and is, as in SA node modification, associated with a high recurrence rate(13). Complete remission is achieved only in approximately 50% of patients in some studies(14); longer history of IST and those reporting near syncope/syncope having a higher probability of recurrence(15).While other studies have shown that RF ablation of the SA node can achieve even longer-term reductions in the sinus rate and relief of symptoms in two-thirds of patients with drug-refractory, inappropriate sinus tachycardia(13), aiming specific sites related to the SA node should be elaborated, for better and optimal outcomes Killu and colleagues created a lesion in the arcuate ridge resulting in complete abolition of the tachycardia, since arrhythmias arising in this region may exhibit both electrocardiographic and clinical similarities to IST(16). This has led to consider ablation of the arcuate ridge as a treatment of refractory IST, necessitating larger trials to confirm its potential role.Phrenic nerve injury is a severe and dreaded complication of SN ablation(12). Pericarditis, right diaphragmatic paralysis, and SVC syndrome are other undesirable side effects of the procedures, variously reported in studies. but a common complication was observed in them all, atrial tachyarrhythmias(12). It has been hypothesized that myocardial pathology, such as inflammation and fibrosis, considered iatrogenic due to the ablation procedures, may be promoting arrhythmias both in the region of the SA node, as well as in remote locations(12). Through multivariable analysis, higher resting heart rates post-ablation and smaller cranial-to-caudal shifts have been defined as predictors of atrial arrhythmias(15). In conclusion, catheter ablation could be considered an effective treatment for highly symptomatic, drug-refractory patients, even for those who did not respond to SA node modification(5).The sinus node is located close to the epicardial surface and catheter-based ablations do not always make full-thickness lesions across the atrial muscle, leading to failure of the ablation(17), besides the numerous trabeculae and the widely variable anatomy.Surgical ablation is not a first-line or routine management strategy for IST, but it has been proposed when IST resists or recurs after SN modification/ endocardial ablation(17). Effectively, in several studies, epicardial lesions, through a single small incision in one of the intercostal spaces, successfully slowed heart rate and shifted activation to a more caudal location, and surprisingly, subsequent endocardial lesions led to an even greater drop in heart rate and more caudal site of earliest activation(18). These outcomes were again replicated when using minimally invasive thoracoscopic ablation of the epicardial site of the SA node, concluding of the promising efficacy and the safety of this approach, since it preserves the phrenic nerve(17), although continued follow-up after surgery is required.Medication-resistant IST remains a medical challenge for physicians and cardiologists; and in the era of great advances in interventional cardiology, its treatment remains debatable. Sinus node modification/ ablation is not recommended as first-line therapy in IST, this procedure should be considered only in drug-refractory patients who have severe symptoms(13). Although the number of patients in the available studies is generally small, both procedures have documented an encouraging success rate in the short-term, while being less impressive in the long-term. It has been hypothesized that this discrepancy is due to the relatively large potential area of atrial pacemaker cells(18); modification or ablation may fail to ablate or isolate all the pathways that comprise the functional SA node because they often target the anatomic part and the area of earliest atrial activation(19). Others have explained that the long-term slowing in rhythm fails because these procedures inconsistently produce transmural lesions in the right atrium. Surgical treatment of IST has proposed a solution to the latter conflict when isolating the SA node with a wide cuff of surrounding atrial muscle(19). And with the advent of bipolar RF clamps and minimally invasive cardiac surgical techniques with thoracoscopic guidance, this approach appears more appealing than before, especially when combined with endocardial ablation(19). But again, current data specifies employing these techniques in highly selected cases.

Jerome FERRARA

and 10 more

Background: There is insufficient evidence regarding the comparison of Rapid Deployment aortic valve replacement(RDAVR) to TAVR in intermediate-risk patients with severe symptomatic aortic stenosis(AS) Aims: We compare the 2-years outcomes between RDAVR with INTUITY and TAVR with SAPIEN 3 in intermediate-risk patients with AS. Methods: Inclusion criteria: severe AS implanted with RDAVR or TAVR; EUROSCORE II ≥ 4% and clinical evaluation by Heart Team. Regression adjustment for the propensity score was used to compare RDAVR with TAVR(1:1). Primary endpoint: composite criterion of death, disabling stroke or rehospitalization. Secondary endpoints: occurrence of major bleeding post-operative complications, paravalvular regurgitation (PVR)≥2 and patient-prosthesis mismatch(PPM) at 1 month and pacemaker implantation at 2 years. Results: A total of 152 patients were included from 2012 to 2018: 48 in the RDAVR group and 104 in the TAVR group. Mean age was 82.7±6, 51.3% were female, mean Euroscore II was 6.03±1.6% and mean baseline LVEF was 56±13%,mean indexed iEOA was 0.41±0.1cm/m2, mean gradient was 51.7±14.7mmHg. Patients with RDAVR were younger(79.5±6vs82.6±6,p=0.01), at higher risk (EUROSCORE2 6,61±1,8%vs5,63±1,5%, p=0.005), combined surgery was performed in 28 patients(58.3%). Twenty-two patients(45.99%) met the primary outcome in the RDAVR group and 32 patients(66.67%) in the TAVR group. By 1:1propensity score matching analysis, there was a significant difference between both groups in favor of RDAVR(HR=0.58[95%CI:0.34;1.00],p=0.04). No difference were observed in PPM occurrence(0.83;[0.35-1.94];p=0.67),major bleeding events(1.33;[0.47-3.93];p=0.59),PVR≥2(0.33[0-6.28],p=0.46), and pacemaker implantation (0.84[0.25-2.84],p=0.77).Conclusion: RDAVR is associated with better 2-years outcomes than TAVR in intermediate-risk patients with severe symptomatic AS.

Francesca Mori

and 10 more

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