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Liang Zhang

and 13 more

Desertified land reclamation for the purposes of winegrape cultivation can profoundly alter the properties of the underlying soil and the microbial communities therein. Herein, we assessed the effects of such reclamation of non-productive desert land on the soil microbial communities associated with the resultant vineyards, and to identify key soil properties related to these changes. Soil was collected from natural desert land (DL) and from different reclaimed vineyard types: Cabernet Sauvignon (CS), Merlot (M), Chardonnay (C), and Italian Riesling (IR). High-throughput sequencing was used to assess microbial community composition and diversity in these samples. Significant differences in soil organic carbon (SOC), total nitrogen, available nitrogen, available phosphorus, and pH were detected when comparing soil from DL and reclaimed lands. CS, M, C, and IR soils exhibited higher relative Actinobacteria, Proteobacteria, and Ascomycota abundance, while DL soil exhibited higher relative Acidobacteria and Mortierellomycota abundance. In total, 165 and 55 bacterial and fungal amplicon sequence variants or operational taxonomic units (ASVs/OTUs) were shared across land use types. Following reclamation, soil bacteria ASVs/OTUs in CS, M, C, and IR soils rose to 2846, 3191, 7630, and 6373, respectively. Biomarkers of these different land use types were successfully identified via an LDA Effect Size (LEfSe) approach, while key soil properties including pH, SOC, and available nitrogen were found to be associated with these changes in microbial community structural composition following reclamation. As such, our data indicate that viticulture in desertified regions can enhance soil properties and microbial diversity, thereby supporting sustainable land use.
Background: Pulmonary embolism (PE) patients with right ventricular (RV) involvement are a heterogenous group who mandate further risk stratification. Our objective was to evaluate the efficacy of the PE severity index (PESI) for predicting adverse clinical outcomes among PE patients with RV involvement. Methods and Results: Consecutive normotensive PE patients with RV involvement were allocated according to admission PESI score (PESI <4 vs. PESI ≥4). The primary outcome included hemodynamic instability and in-hospital mortality. Secondary outcomes included each component of the primary outcome as well as mechanical ventilation, thrombolytic therapy, acute kidney injury, and major bleeding. Multivariable logistic regression model was performed to assess the independent association between the PESI score and primary outcome. C-Statistic was used to compare the PESI with the BOVA score. A total of 253 patients were evaluated: 95 (38%) with a PESI of ≥4. Of them, 82 (32%) patients were classified as intermediate-low risk and 171 (68%) as intermediate-high risk. Fifty (20%) patients had at least 1 adverse event. Multivariate analysis demonstrated the PESI to be an independent predictor for the primary outcome (HR 4.81, CI 95%, 1.15-20.09, P=0.031), which was increased with a concomitant increase of the PESI score (PESI 1:4.2%, PESI 2: 3.4%, PESI 3:12%, PESI 4: 16.3%, PESI 5:23.1%, P for trend <0.001). C-Statistic analysis for the PESI score yielded an AUC-0.746 (0.637-0.854), P=0.001, compared to the BOVA score: AUC-0.679 (0.584-0.775), P=0.011. Conclusion: PESI score was found to predict adverse outcomes among normotensive PE patients with RV involvement.

Travis Geraci

and 10 more

Anaïs Lemoine

and 5 more

Background Food protein-induced enterocolitis syndrome (FPIES) is a non IgE-mediated food allergy, with potential dehydration secondary to vomiting. Differences exist regarding culprit foods, onset symptoms, and age of tolerance depending on the country of origin. We aimed to describe the characteristics of a French population of children with FPIES. Methods Data from 179 children who were referred for acute or chronic FPIES in two pediatric tertiary centers between 2014 and 2020 were retrospectively collected. The diagnosis of FPIES was based on international consensus guidelines. Clinical characteristics, culprit food and age at resolution were assessed. Results In the 192 described FPIES, the age at first symptoms was 5.8 months old. The main offending foods were cow’s milk (60.3%), hen’s egg (16.2%), and fish (11.7%). Single FPIES was observed in 94.4% and multiple FPIES in 5.6% of cases. The age at resolution of FPIES was 2.2 years old, and resolution occurred later for fish than for milk (2.9 years versus 2.0, p=0.01). Severe acute FPIES was a risk factor for delayed resolution (relative risk: 3.3 [1.2-9.2]), but not IgE sensitization. Performing an oral food challenge within 12 months after the first reaction increased the risk of failure (RR: 2.0 [1.2-3.5]). Conclusion In this French cohort of children with FPIES, the main culprit foods were ubiquitous. Rice, oat and soy were rarely or not involved. Multiple FPIES was infrequent. Our data confirmed the overall good prognosis of FPIES, the later resolution of FPIES to fish and in the case of severe acute FPIES.

zhu xuefeng

and 10 more

Aims: This study sought to describe originating from the spontaneous scarring of left atrial anterior wall (LAAW) left atrial macroreentry tachycardia (LAMRT) clinical and electrophysiological characteristics, mechanisms, the formation of substrates. Methods and Results: 9 of 123 patients (89% female, age 79.78±5.59 years) had LAMRT originating from the LAAW and no cardiac surgery or prior left atrial (LA) ablation. The mean tachycardia cycle length (TCL) was 241.67±38.00 milliseconds. Spontaneous scars areas and low voltage areas (LVAs) in the LAAW were found in all patients. Successful ablation of the critical isthmus caused terminated of the LAMRT and was not inducible in all patients. Arrhythmogenic substrates of LAMRT were the spontaneous scars of LAAW, which matched with the aorta or/and pulmonary artery contact area. The area under the curve (AUC) of age and combination of gender and age for predicting the LAMRT originating from the LAAW were 0.918 and 0.951, respectively, with a cutoff value of ≥73.5 years of age and gender (female) predicting LAMRT with 88.9% sensitivity and 89% specificity. Conclusion: Combination of gender and age provides a simple and useful criterion to distinguish LAMRT from cavo-tricuspid isthmus (CTI) -dependent atrial tachycardia in macroreentry atrial tachycardia (MRAT) in patients without a history of surgery or ablation. Aorta or/and pulmonary artery contacting LA may be related to spontaneous scars. Ablation the isthmus eliminated LAMRT in all patients.

Steven Ferguson

and 5 more

Identification of phenotypic characteristics in reproductively successful individuals provides important insights into the evolutionary processes that cause range shifts due to environmental change. Female beluga whales (Delphinapterus leucas) from the Baffin Bay region (BB) of the Canadian Arctic in the core area of the species’ geographic range have larger body size than their conspecifics at the southern range periphery in Hudson Bay (HB). We investigated the mechanism for this north and south divergence as it relates to reproductive activity (RA = total corpora) that combines morphometric data with ovarian corpora counted from female reproductive tracts. Based on the previous finding of reproductive senescence in older HB females, but not for BB whales, we compared RA patterns the of the two populations’ with age and body length. Female beluga whale RA increased more quickly with age (63% partial variation explained) in BB than in HB (41%). In contrast, body length in HB female beluga whale accounted for considerably more of the total variation (12 vs 1%) in RA compared to BB whales. We speculate that female HB beluga whale RA was more strongly linked with body length due to higher population density resulting in food competition that favors the energetic advantages of larger body size during seasonal food limitations. Understanding the evolutionary mechanism of how RA, and potentially fitness, varies across a species’ range will assist conservation efforts in anticipating and mitigating future challenges associated with a warming planet.

Bora Tetik

and 7 more

Background: The known primary radiological diagnosis of Chiari Malformation-I (CM-I) is based on the degree of tonsillar herniation ( TH) below the Foramen Magnum (FM). However, recent data also shows the association of such malformation with smaller posterior cranial fossa (PCF) volume and the anatomical issues regarding the Odontoid. This study presents the achieved result regarding some detected potential radiological findings that may aid CM-I diagnosis using several machine learning (ML) algorithms. Materials and Methods: Between 2011 and 2020, radiological examinations of 100 clinically/radiologically proved symptomatic CM-I cases and 100 control were evaluated by matching age and gender. A team of Neuroradiologists had reviewed the MR images of the study population. A total of 11 different radiological parameters were assessed for CM-I diagnosis. The parameters were defined and examined in 5 designed different ML algorithms. Statistical analysis was conducted for data analysis. Results: The mean age of patients was 29.92 ± 15.03 years. The primary presenting symptoms were headaches (62%). Syringomyelia and retrocurved-odontoid were detected in 34% and 8% of patients, respectively. All of the morphometric measures were significantly different between the groups, except for the distance from the dens axis to the posterior margin of FM. The Radom Forest model is found to have the best 1.0 (14 of 14) ratio of accuracy in regard to 14 different combinations of morphometric features. Conclusion: This study indicates the potential usefulness of ML-guided PCF measurements, other than TH, that may be used to predict and diagnose CM-I accurately. Our results support the view of TH as a single radiological parameter may fail during the diagnosis of CM-I. Combining two or three preferable osseous structure-based parameters may increase the accuracy of radiological diagnosis of CM-I.

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Mohammed Al-Sadawi

and 7 more

Abstract: Background: This meta-analysis assessed the relationship between Obstructive Sleep Apnea (OSA) and echocardiographic parameters of diastolic dysfunction (DD), which are used in the assessment of Heart Failure with Preserved Ejection Fraction (HFpEF). Methods: We searched the databases including Ovid MEDLINE, Ovid Embase Scopus, Web of Science, Google Scholar, and EBSCO CINAHL from inception up to December 26th, 2020. The search was not restricted to time, publication status or language. Comparisons were made between patients with OSA, diagnosed in-laboratory polysomnography (PSG) or home sleep apnea testing (HSAT), and patients without OSA in relation to established markers of diastolic dysfunction. Results: Primary search identified 2512 studies. A total of 18 studies including 2509 participants were included. The two groups were free of conventional cardiovascular risk factors. Significant structural changes were observed between the two groups. Patients with OSA exhibited greater LAVI (3.94 CI [0.8, 7.07]; p=0.000) and left ventricular mass index (11.10 CI [2.56,19.65]; p=0.000) as compared to control group. The presence of OSA was also associated with more prolonged DT (10.44 ms CI [0.71,20.16]; p=0.04), IVRT (7.85 ms CI[4.48, 11.22]; p=0.000), and lower E/A ratio (-0.62 CI [-1,-0.24]; p=0.001) suggestive of early DD. The E/e’ ratio (0.94 CI[0.44, 1.45]; p=0.000) was increased. Conclusion: An association between OSA and echocardiographic parameters of DD was detected that was independent of conventional cardiovascular risk factors. OSA may be independently associated with DD perhaps due to higher LV mass. Investigating the role of CPAP therapy in reversing or ameliorating diastolic dysfunction is recommended.

Huseyin Kazan

and 6 more

Objective: To investigate the factors, especially preoperative urinalysis, predicting postoperative early infection after retrograde intrarenal surgery (RIRS) in 1-2 cm renal stones. Methods: Of the 642 patients who underwent RIRS between September 2013 and July 2019, 289 patients with a total stone size of 1-2 cm were included in the study. Patients were divided into two groups as with and without postoperative urinary tract infection. The demographic data and perioperative findings of all patients were retrospectively reviewed. Sterile urine cultures were obtained in all patients during the preoperative 30-day period and urine analysis values were included in the data. Results: Urinary system infection (UTI) was seen in 20 (6.9%) of 289 patients. Patient demographics were similar between groups. There was no statistically significant difference between the two groups in terms of stone diameter and stone localization (median diameter 13.5 vs 15, p=0.285). Patients with postoperative UTI had a higher rate of UTI history (55% vs 20.5%, p=0.000) and longer operative times (62.5 vs 60 min., p=0.008). Rate of pyuria, leukocyte esterase and nitrite positivity were observed more frequently in patients with postoperative UTI. In multivariate analysis, UTI history, prolonged operative time, and nitrite positivity were found to be independent risk factors for postoperative UTI. Conclusion: Nitrite positivity in preoperative urinanalysis, history of UTI and prolonged operation time are the factors that predict the postoperative infection in RIRS for stones between 1-2 cm.

Gunter Sturm

and 38 more

Background: There is controversy whether taking β-blockers or ACE inhibitors (ACEI) is a risk factor for more severe systemic insect sting reactions (SSR) and whether it increases the number or severity of adverse events (AE) during venom immunotherapy (VIT). Methods: In this open, prospective, observational, multicenter trial, we recruited patients with a history of a SSR and indication for VIT. The primary objective of this study was to evaluate whether patients taking β-blockers or ACEI show more systemic AE during VIT compared to patients without such treatment. Results: In total, 1,425 patients were enrolled and VIT was performed in 1,342 patients. Of all patients included, 388 (27.2%) took antihypertensive (AHT) drugs (10.4% took β-blockers, 11.9% ACEI, 5.0% β-blockers and ACEI). Only 5.6% of patients under AHT treatment experienced systemic AE during VIT as compared with 7.4% of patients without these drugs (OR: 0.74, 95% CI: 0.43–1.22, p=0.25). The severity of the initial sting reaction was not affected by the intake of β-blockers or ACEI (OR: 1.14, 95% CI: 0.89–1.46, p=0.29). In total, 210 (17.7%) patients were re-stung during VIT and 191 (91.0%) tolerated the sting without systemic symptoms. Of the 19 patients with VIT treatment failure, 4 took β-blockers, none an ACEI. Conclusions: This trial provides robust evidence that taking β-blockers or ACEI does neither increase the frequency of systemic AE during VIT nor aggravate SSR. Moreover, results suggest that these drugs do not impair effectiveness of VIT. (Funded by Medical University of Graz, Austria; number, NCT04269629)

Nazanin Kermani

and 12 more

Background. Patients with severe asthma may have a greater risk of dying from COVID-19 disease. Angiotensin converting enzyme-2 (ACE2) and the enzyme proteases, transmembrane protease serine 2 (TMPRSS2) and FURIN, are needed for viral attachment and invasion into host cells. Methods. We examined microarray mRNA expression of ACE2, TMPRSS2 and FURIN in sputum, bronchial brushing and bronchial biopsies of the European U-BIOPRED cohort. Clinical parameters and molecular phenotypes, including asthma severity, sputum inflammatory cells, lung functions, oral corticosteroid (OCS) use, and transcriptomic-associated clusters, were examined in relation to gene expression levels. Results. ACE2 levels were significantly increased in sputum of severe asthma compared to mild-moderate asthma. In multivariate analyses, sputum ACE2 levels were positively associated with OCS use and male gender. Sputum FURIN levels were significantly related to neutrophils (%) and the presence of severe asthma. In bronchial brushing samples, TMPRSS2 levels were positively associated with male gender and body mass index, whereas FURIN levels with male gender and blood neutrophils. In bronchial biopsies, TMPRSS2 levels were positively related to blood neutrophils. The neutrophilic molecular phenotype characterised by high inflammasome activation expressed significantly higher FURIN levels in sputum than the eosinophilic Type 2-high or the pauci-granulocytic oxidative phosphorylation phenotypes. Conclusion. Levels of ACE2 and FURIN may differ by clinical or molecular phenotypes of asthma. Sputum FURIN expression levels were strongly associated with neutrophilic inflammation and with inflammasome activation. This might indicate the potential for a greater morbidity and mortality outcome from SARS-CoV-2 infection in neutrophilic severe asthma.

Mehmet Pehlivaoğlu

and 5 more

Aim: This study evaluated the effect of intracavitary levobupivacaine infusion diluted with locally applied isotonic solution for pain control in cystoscopy. Methods: Included in this study are 100 patients who had previously undergone transurethral tumor resection for bladder tumor and were followed up by cystoscopy. The patients were randomized into five groups (n = 20). In the first, second, third, and fourth groups, 4, 6, 8, and 10 mL of levobupivacaine HCl (5.0 mg/mL) were mixed with 26, 24, 22, and 20 mL of isotonic solution, respectively. Hence, the total mixture was 30 mL for each group. The fifth group was the control group. In this group, the standard method commonly used in most clinics was utilized. That is, a gel containing Cathejell-2% lidocaine (25 mg lidocaine) was applied. Cystoscopic interventions were performed with a 17.5 Fr rigid cystoscope and 0°, 30°, and 70° lens. During cystoscopy and 30 min later, the pain status of patients was assessed using the Visual Analogue Scale (VAS), and patient satisfaction was questioned. Results: The mean VAS score during and after the cystoscopy procedure was significantly lower in the levobupivacaine groups compared to the lidocaine group. In addition, patient satisfaction in the levobupivacaine groups was significantly higher than in the lidocaine group. No drug-related side-effects were observed in all groups. Conclusion: Thus, levobupivacaine is a more effective drug than lidocaine alone to control pain during cystoscopy. The use of levobupivacaine is recommended to prevent possible complications of general anesthesia by eliminating the need for the aforementioned as well as its cost-saving advantage.

Yanhui Dong

and 4 more

Groundwater age is often used to estimate groundwater recharge through a simplified analytical approach. This estimated recharge is thought to be representative of the mean recharge between the point of entry and the sampling point. However, given the complexity in actual recharge, whether the mean recharge is reasonable is still unclear. This study examined the validity of the method to estimate long-term average groundwater recharge and the possibility of obtaining reasonable spatial recharge pattern. We first validated our model in producing reasonable age distributions using a constant flux boundary condition. We then generated different flow fields and age patterns by using various spatially-varying flux boundary conditions with different magnitudes and wavelengths. Groundwater recharge was estimated and analyzed afterwards using the method at the spatial scale. We illustrated the main findings with a field example in the end. Our results suggest that we can estimate long-term average groundwater recharge with 10% error in many parts of an aquifer. The size of these areas decreases with the increase in both the amplitude and the wavelength. The chance of obtaining a reasonable groundwater recharge is higher if an age sample is collected from the middle of an aquifer and at downstream areas. Our study also indicates that the method can also be used to estimate local groundwater recharge if age samples are collected close to the water table. However, care must be taken to determine groundwater age regardless of conditions.

Xinyi Guan

and 4 more

Adriana Bustamante

and 3 more

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