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Benedict Irwin

and 5 more

More accurate predictions of the biological properties of chemical compounds would guide the selection and design of new compounds in drug discovery and help to address the enormous cost and low success-rate of pharmaceutical R&D. However this domain presents a significant challenge for AI methods due to the sparsity of compound data and the noise inherent in results from biological experiments. In this paper, we demonstrate how data imputation using deep learning provides substantial improvements over quantitative structure-activity relationship (QSAR) machine learning models that are widely applied in drug discovery. We present the largest-to-date successful application of deep-learning imputation to datasets which are comparable in size to the corporate data repository of a pharmaceutical company (678,994 compounds by 1166 endpoints). We demonstrate this improvement for three areas of practical application linked to distinct use cases; i) target activity data compiled from a range of drug discovery projects, ii) a high value and heterogeneous dataset covering complex absorption, distribution, metabolism and elimination properties and, iii) high throughput screening data, testing the algorithm’s limits on early-stage noisy and very sparse data. Achieving median coefficients of determination, R2, of 0.69, 0.36 and 0.43 respectively across these applications, the deep learning imputation method offers an unambiguous improvement over random forest QSAR methods, which achieve median R2 values of 0.28, 0.19 and 0.23 respectively. We also demonstrate that robust estimates of the uncertainties in the predicted values correlate strongly with the accuracies in prediction, enabling greater confidence in decision-making based on the imputed values.

Qianyang Huang

and 20 more

Objective To evaluate whether longitudinal measurements of serological adipokines and sphingolipids can predict preeclampsia early in gestation. Design Retrospective multi-omics discovery and longitudinal validation. Setting Maternity units in two US hospitals. Methods A multi-omics approach integrating genomic and lipidomic discoveries was employed to identify leptin (Lep) and ceramide (Cer) as novel PE early gestational biomarkers. The levels of placental growth factor (PlGF), soluble fms-like tyrosine kinase (sFlt-1), Lep, and Cer in maternal sera were then determined by enzyme-linked immunosorbent and liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometric assays. Main outcome measures Interval from positive prediction to confirmative diagnosis. Results Genomic meta-analysis compiled six PE placental cohorts with 78 PE and 95 non-PE control placentas. The Testing Cohort included sera from 7 non-PE and 8 PE women collected at confirmatory diagnosis. The Validation Cohort included sera from 20 non-PE and 20 PE women collected longitudinally through gestation. Our findings revealed a marked elevation of maternal serum Leptin/Ceramide (d18:1/25:0) ratio from early gestation (a median of 23 weeks) when comparing later PE-complicated with uncomplicated pregnancies. The maternal Lep/Cer (d18:1/25:0) ratio significantly outperformed the established sFlt-1/PlGF ratio in predicting PE for sensitivity (85% vs. 40%), positive predictive value (89% vs. 42%), and AUC (0.92 vs. 0.52) from 5 to 25 weeks of gestation. Conclusions Non-invasive longitudinal assessment by serological evaluation of Lep/Cer (d18:1/25:0) ratio can case find early pregnancies at risk of preeclampsia, outperforming sFlt-1/PlGF ratio test. Tweetable abstract Non-invasive longitudinal assessment by serological evaluation of Lep and Cer ratio can predict preeclampsia early in gestation.

Maen Abou Ziki

and 11 more

Introduction: Posterior fossa ependymomas in children are associated with a poor prognosis. This retrospective study tries to determine prognostic factors for the outcomes and the quality of life. Material and Methods: Thirty-three patients with posterior fossa ependymomas were treated from 2002 to 2018. All patients had a cranio-spinal MRI and 3.12% were metastatic. Removal was complete in 29 patients (90.62%). All patients received a complementary treatment: 11patients chemotherapy, radiotherapy in 35 patients, 24 cases of neoadjuvant type and for recurrence in 11. Results: Average age was 5.8 years with a range from 9 months to 18 years. The sex ratio was 2.3 (M/F: 23/10). Sixteen patients had one recurrence (3 metastatic). 90% of the EpPCF were of the PFA group. Overall Survival was 65% with a mean follow-up of 8.4 and a median of 9 years. Twenty-one patients were alive (63.63%) at last follow-up. All were tumour-free according the MRI except 2 patients, 1 with a stable residue for 5 years and 1 in palliative treatment for metastatic recurrence for 5 years. Post-operative complications were as follow, facial nerve palsy in four cases (12.12%), swallowing disorders in three cases (9.09%), transient cerebellar syndrome in 4 cases (12.12%). Fifteen patients had normal schooling. Conclusion: Posterior fossa ependymomas are aggressive tumors. Complete surgical removal remains the most important prognostic factor even if responsible of sequels. Despite molecular studies and the expression of different genes, no obvious therapeutic target has yet emerged.
Improved sample preparation has the potential to address a huge unmet need for fast turnaround sepsis tests that enable early administration of appropriate antimicrobial therapy. In recent years, inertial and elasto-inertial microfluidics-based sample preparation has gained substantial interest for bioparticle separation applications. However, for applications in blood stream infections the throughput and bacteria separation efficiency has thus far been limited. In this work, for the first time we report elasto-inertial microfluidics-based bacteria isolation from blood at throughputs and efficiencies unparalleled with current microfluidics-based state of the art. In the method, bacteria-spiked blood sample is prepositioned close to the outer wall of a spiral microchannel using a viscoelastic sheath buffer. The blood cells will remain fully focused throughout the length of the spiral channel while bacteria migrate to the inner wall for effective separation. Initially, microparticles were used to investigate particle focusing and the separation performance of the spiral device. A separation efficiency of 96% for the 1 µm particles was achieved, while 100% of 3 µm particles were recovered at the desired outlet at a throughput (sample + sheath) of 1 mL/min. Following, processing blood samples revealed a minimum of 1:2 dilution was necessary to keep the blood cells fully focus at the outer wall. In experiments involving bacteria spiked in diluted blood, viable E.coli were continuously separated at a total flow rate of 1 mL/min, with a separation efficiency between 82 to 90% depending on the blood dilution. Using a single spiral, it takes 40 minutes to process 1 mL of whole blood at a separation efficiency of 82% and 3 hr at 90% efficiency. To the best of our knowledge, this is the highest bacteria separation efficiency from blood sample reported using inertial and elasto-inertial methods. As such, the label-free, passive high efficiency and high throughput of bacteria isolation method has a great potential for speeding up downstream phenotypic and molecular analysis of bacteria.

Catharine Fleming

and 5 more

Background The long-term impact of childhood cancer treatment on dietary intake is likely to be complex and the length of time dietary behaviours are affected after childhood cancer treatment is unknown. Aim The aim of this study was to determine the diet quality in childhood cancer survivors recently off treatment and identify possible contributing factors that may affect diet quality in this population. Methods Participants were 65 parents and/or carers of childhood cancer survivors (CCS) (aged 2-18 years), recently off treatment and 81 age-matched controls. Methods Participants completed two self-administered dietary intake and eating behaviour questionnaires. Study data was explored to determine between group differences, bivariate analysis using Spearman’s correlations was used to determine the relationship between diet quality and identified variables, and hierarchical cluster analysis was completed to characterise specific variables into clusters. Results CCS had a significantly poorer diet quality score than the age-matched controls (t=-2.226, p=0.028). Childhood cancer survivors had significantly higher parent-reported rates of ‘picky eating’ behaviour than the control group (t=0.106 p=0.044). Factors such as picky eating, emotional overeating and Body Mass Index z-score appeared to drive diet quality in survivors. Conclusions A CCS with picky eating behaviours could avoid complete food groups, have strong food preferences/aversions and over- consume high energy foods to maintain their energy intake, possibly affecting diet quality. The outcomes highlighted the need for a tailored intervention aimed at improving healthy eating behaviours in CCS after treatment for cancer.

Robert Wynne

and 11 more

The occurrence of alternative morphs within populations is common but the underlying molecular mechanisms remain poorly understood. Many animals, for example, exhibit facultative migration, where two or more alternative migratory tactics (AMTs) coexist within populations. In certain salmonid species, some individuals remain in natal rivers all their lives, whilst others (in particular, females) migrate to sea for a period of marine growth. Here we performed transcriptional profiling (“RNA-seq”) of the brain and liver of male and female brown trout to understand the genes and processes that differentiate migratory and residency morphs (AMT-associated genes) and how they may differ in expression between the sexes. We found tissue-specific differences with greater number of genes expressed differentially in the liver (n = 867 genes) compared to the brain (n = 10) between the morphs. Genes with increased expression in resident livers were enriched for Gene Ontology terms associated with metabolic processes, highlighting key molecular-genetic pathways underlying the energetic requirements associated with divergent migratory tactics. In contrast, smolt-biased genes were enriched for biological processes such as response to cytokines, suggestive of possible immune function differences between smolts and residents. Finally, we identified evidence of sex-biased gene expression for AMT-associated genes in the liver (n = 18) but not the brain. Collectively, our results provide insights into tissue-specific gene expression underlying the production of alternative life-histories within and between the sexes, and point towards a key role for metabolic processes in the liver in mediating divergent physiological trajectories of migrants versus residents.

Chetan Sharma

and 5 more

Abstract Continuous intravenous (IV) sildenafil may avoid the acute systemic vasodilatory effects of bolus dosing in infants with pulmonary hypertension (PH). We aimed to examine the tolerability of different methods of IV sildenafil administration. Methods: We retrospectively evaluated subjects less than 12 months old with PH, who had been started on IV sildenafil. Vital signs, oxygen requirement, and vasoactive-inotropic score (VIS) before and after sildenafil initiation were noted, as was the need for discontinuation due to side effects. Results: Forty-three subjects were identified (23 continuous, 20 intermittent dosing). There were no statistically significant differences between groups in gender or gestational age, but higher baseline inspired oxygen (FiO2) and VIS in the continuous group suggested a higher baseline severity of illness (p=0.012). After sildenafil initiation, there were no significant differences in the change in blood pressure, oxygen saturation, FiO2, or VIS between groups, and no difference in the number of subjects requiring discontinuation due to side effects (4 in the continuous group, 1 intermittent, p=0.35). Eight subjects (34.8%) in the continuous group and 3 (15%) in the intermittent group died (p=0.024). Conclusions: In this small cohort of infants with PH treated with continuous or intermittent IV sildenafil, there were no statistically significant differences between groups in the change in vital signs, VIS, and oxygen requirement, or the need for discontinuation of therapy due to side effects. A higher mortality rate in the continuous infusion group may be explained by higher baseline illness severity.

Hasan Onal

and 9 more

Aim The present study aimed to evaluate the effect of quercetin in COVID-19 treatment. Methods This was a single-centre, prospective randomised controlled cohort study. Routine care versus QCB (quercetin, vitamin C, bromelain) supplementation was compared between 447 patients with at least one chronic disease and moderate-to-severe respiratory symptoms. Demographic features, signs, laboratory results and drug administration data of patients were recorded. The endpoint was that QCB supplementation was continued throughout the follow-up period from study baseline to discharge, intubation, or death. Results The most common complaints at presentation were fatigue (62.4%), cough (61.1%), anorexia (57%), thirst (53.7%), respiratory distress (51%) and chills (48.3%). The decrease in CRP, procalcitonin and ferritin levels was higher in the QCB group (all Ps were <0.05). In the QCB group, an increase in platelet and lymphocyte counts were higher (all Ps were <0.05). QCB did not reduce the risk of events during follow-up. Adjustments for statistically significant parameters, including the lung stage, use of favipiravir and presence of comorbidity did not change the results. While there was no difference between the groups in terms of event frequency, QCB group had more advanced pulmonary findings. QCB supplement is shown to have a positive effect on laboratory recovery. Conclusion We suggest that suboptimal bioavailability of QCB may explain this. So, we conclude that if a stable blood level can be achieved for QCB, it may make a difference in the treatment of COVID-19.

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Oktay Ucer

and 3 more

Semih Ak

and 1 more

Background: Hookah is a tobacco product of Middle Eastern origin; however, its popularity increases in Europe and the US. Despite its frequent use, hookah’s potentially detrimental effects are underestimated due to the scarcity of the relevant research. Since septoplasty is one of the most commonly performed procedures of otolaryngology practice, we aimed to investigate the impact of hookah consumption on recovery after septoplasty. Methods: Patients who underwent septoplasty in Sanliurfa Training and Research Hospital Department of Otolaryngology between January 2017 and December 2019 were divided into four groups based on their history of hookah and cigarette smoking. The patients’ prospectively collected data, including demographic features, healing time, and presence or absence of septal perforation during follow-up, were compared between these four groups. Results: The entire cohort included 270 patients. The mean patient age was 29.2±5.8 years. One hundred and thirty-two (48.9%) patients were non-smokers, 96 (35.5%) were cigarette smokers, 27 (10%) were hookah smokers, and 15 (5.6%) consumed both tobacco products regularly. Mean healing time was 10 days, and septal perforation was encountered in 10 patients (3.7%). A comparison of the groups revealed that cigarette smoking did not impact septal perforation rates (p=0.326) but prolonged the healing time. However, hookah smoking with or without cigarette smoking significantly influenced septal perforation rates and healing times. Conclusion: Patients should be questioned about hookah smoking in addition to cigarette smoking before the septoplasty procedure. Patients with a positive history of hookah smoking should be followed closely in terms of delayed healing and increased septal perforation rates.

George Angelidis

and 3 more

COVID-19 and nuclear cardiology: Introducing the ‘’forward” virtual visit Angelidis G, Valotassiou V, Psimadas D, Georgoulias PNuclear Medicine Laboratory, University of Thessaly, Larissa, GreeceWe read with great interest the recent review article by Kaushik A, et al. concerning the potential role of digital health applications in the present pandemic situation [1]. As the authors noted, alternative tools are needed for the optimal management of cardiovascular patients, avoiding unnecessary visits to health care facilities. The severe acute respiratory syndrome – coronavirus – 2 (SARS-CoV-2) can invade the cardiovascular cells, potentially causing life-threatening cardiac impairment [2]. In particular, patients with pre-existing cardiovascular diseases are characterized by a higher risk of adverse cardiovascular events. Therefore, most of those referred for nuclear cardiology techniques are expected to be at higher risk of developing serious coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) complications. However, the performance of the individually required diagnostic and follow-up procedures is important [3].Telemedicine applications have been used in public health emergencies, leading to several advantages in terms of safety and efficacy. In the field of nuclear cardiology, the initial evaluation of patients’ history and clinical features can take place remotely (‘’forward” virtual visit). This approach seems to be patient-centred (permitting an adequate case assessment) and conducive to self-quarantine (protecting patients, healthcare professionals, and the community from viral exposure). Importantly, possible clinical presentations of COVID-19 may be evaluated during the ‘’forward” virtual visit, as well as information regarding travel and exposure histories. Moreover, local epidemiological information may be used to adjust screening pattern, and special measures could be developed (such as isolation in dedicated ‘’hot” rooms) for patients with high-risk features. After the performance of the examination, telemedicine applications could be also used for the consultation with the patients.Telemedicine applications may contribute to a better adjustment of nuclear cardiology services under the current demanding circumstances. Of course, no telemedicine programme can be created overnight, but this approach may be of value not only during the next months but also after the end of COVID-19 pandemic [4]. For example, our nuclear medicine laboratory is located in central Greece providing services to inhabitants of mountain villages, and nearby small islands. Consequently, the use of telemedicine applications could aid our practice in the future as well, particularly during the winter months when travelling by car or sea travels may be extremely demanding.

Attila Mokánszki

and 8 more

Background Retinoblastoma (Rb) is a malignant tumor of the developing retina that affects children before the age of five years in association with inherited or early germline mutations of the RB1 gene. The genetic predisposition is also related with second primary malignancies arising de novo, or following radiotherapy which have become the leading cause of death in retinoblastoma survivors. Procedure We describe a retinoblastoma case with a novel RB1 and a synchronous MET aberration. Our goal was to identify all germline and somatic genetic alterations in available tissue samples from different time periods and to reconstruct their clonal relations using next generation sequencing (NGS). We also used structural and functional prediction of the mutant RB and MET proteins to find interactions between the defected proteins with potential causative role in the development of this uniqe form of retinoblastoma. Results In this study we detected a retinoblastoma case of non-parental origin with a novel RB1 c.2548C>T;p.(Gln850Ter) and a synchronous MET c.3029C>T;p.(Thr1010Ile) germline mutations. Following bilateral retinoblastoma the boy further developed at least four different manifestations of two independent osteosarcomas. Both histopathology and NGS findings supported the independent nature of a chondroblastic osteosarcoma of the irradiated facial bone followed by an osteoblastic sarcoma of the leg (tibia). Conclusions Because of the expanding number of registered Rb cases, the novel rare cases publication is very important to understand the molecular mechanism of this malignancy. We reported a novel form of Rb and consequential chondroblastic and osteoblastic osteosarcoma, the latter one developing pulmonary metastatses.

Ugur Balkanci

and 2 more

An Unusual Case of Necrotizing Pneumonia Presenting with Acute Kidney InjuryUgur Berkay Balkanci, MDSchool of Public Health, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, MNDavid J. Sas, DODivision of Pediatric Nephrology and Hypertension, Department of Pediatrics and Adolescent Medicine, Mayo Clinic, Rochester, MinnesotaNadir Demirel, MDDivision of Pediatric Pulmonology, Department of Pediatrics and Adolescent Medicine, Mayo Clinic, Rochester, MinnesotaCorresponding Author:Nadir Demirel, MDDivision of Pediatric Pulmonology200 First Street SWRochester, MN 55906Tel. No.: 5075380754Fax No.: 5072840727Demirel.nadir@mayo.eduKey words: postinfectious glomerulonephritis, pneumothorax, complications, complicated pneumoniaFinancial Disclosure: The authors have indicated they have no financial relationships relevant to this article to disclose.Funding: No external funding.Short title: “An unusual case of necrotizing pneumonia”To the Editor:Lower respiratory tract infections are the most common reason for hospitalization in the pediatric age group in the United States. Although pneumonia is prevalent, complicated pneumonia such as empyema, lung abscess and necrotizing pneumonia (NP) is uncommon in children1. The prevalence of complicated pneumococcal pneumonia decreased significantly after the introduction of the thirteen-valent pneumococcal vaccine in 20101. NP in the pediatric population is a severe disease characterized by extensive destruction and liquefaction of the lung tissue resulting in loss of the pulmonary parenchymal architecture, cavitation of the lung, and pleural involvement. Renal complications of complicated pneumonia are rare and mostly reported as atypical hemolytic uremic syndrome (HUS)2. Post-infectious glomerulonephritis (PIGN) is an unexpected complication of bacterial pneumonia3.We report a six-year-old otherwise healthy fully vaccinated girl with a 4-day history of fever, abdominal pain, vomiting, non-bloody diarrhea, and poor oral intake. Parents reported decreased urine output and dark-colored urine on the day of admission. Initial evaluation revealed serum creatinine of 5.01 mg/dL and blood urea nitrogen of 86 mg/dL, elevated acute phase reactants suggesting acute kidney injury (AKI) in the setting of an undiagnosed acute infectious process. The patient was admitted with decreased effective circulatory volume. Urinalysis revealed hematuria with <25% dysmorphic red blood cells (RBCs), proteinuria, pyuria, and RBC casts and granular casts, suggestive of acute glomerulonephritis.She was started on intermittent hemodialysis at day 2 of admission to address uremia, fluid overload, and hyperphosphatemia. A renal biopsy revealed diffuse exudative glomerulonephritis, consistent with infection-related glomerulonephritis. ASO, Anti-DNase B were negative; C3, C4 levels were low. She was treated with pulse IV methylprednisolone 10mg/kg/day for three days. The first 5 days in the hospital, the patient remained afebrile and her lung exam was normal without respiratory symptoms.On day six of admission, she developed acute right-sided chest pain and shortness of breath during hemodialysis. Chest x-ray (CXR) revealed a large right-sided tension pneumothorax, prompting therapeutic chest tube placement. Repeat CXR revealed reexpansion of the right lung and a significant right upper lobe consolidation with an ovoid hyperlucency and an air-fluid level. A chest CT scan confirmed the diagnosis of NP with multiple cavities (Image).Flexible bronchoscopy was performed with bronchoalveolar lavage revealing 42% neutrophils and negative cultures. She was treated with broad spectrum intravenous antibiotics.During admission, she developed hypertension, well-controlled with scheduled enalapril and amlodipine, as well as isradipine as needed. On day 14 of admission, hemodialysis was discontinued as kidney function improved, and chest tube was removed. She was discharged at day 26 of admission on intravenous ceftriaxone and oral metronidazole to complete 30 days of treatment. A repeat chest CT at end of treatment showed complete resolution of NP. Renal functions and blood pressure normalized on follow up.NP is characterized by persistent high fevers and prolonged hospitalizations even with appropriate antibiotic treatment1. Most often, NP affects immunocompetent children with no underlying risk factors4. The pathophysiology of this complication is acute liquefactive necrosis of the lung parenchyma which results in the development of pneumatoceles4. The most common pathogen causing NP is Streptococcus pneumoniae followed by Staphylococcus aureus and Streptococcus pyogenes. Other rarer bacterial and viral pathogens are Mycoplasma pneumonia, Influenza, and Adenovirus1. Identifying the microbiologic pathogen can be challenging and is only made in 50% of cases1. In our case, we did not isolate the causative microorganism. NP typically resolves without residual morbidity, even after a protracted course1,4.Pleural involvement is almost universal in NP, and the course of pleural disease often determines duration and outcome, particularly as it relates to the complication of bronchopleural fistula (BPF)1. BPF is most likely due to the necrotic development of a connection between bronchial space and pleural space4. BPF formation is associated with a significantly longer hospital stay in children with NP4. Yet, most cases heal without surgical intervention4. Tension pneumothorax has been observed as a rare complication of NP1.Renal involvement in complicated pneumonia is rare. Atypical HUS has been reported as a complication of pneumonia, particularly associated with empyema. (most commonly due to invasive Streptococcus pneumoniae)2. In a case series of 37 cases of atypical HUS, 34 patients (92%) had pneumonia with 10 patients (29%) with NP5. Less commonly, pneumonia can be associated with PIGN. PIGN is the most common glomerulonephritis in children worldwide. Pneumonia-associated PIGN is rare. In a case series from the US, PIGN accounted for 0.15% of admissions for pneumonia and 0.39% of admissions for glomerulonephritis6. Pneumonia-associated PIGN is known to be caused by various bacterial pathogens including Streptococcus pneumoniae, Staphylococcus aureus, Mycoplasma pneumoniae, Chlamydia pneumoniae, Nocardia, and Coxiella burnetii3. Different from the usual presentation of the PIGN (in which the time interval between a pharyngeal group A Streptococcal infection and PIGN is 6 to 10 days), pneumonia-associated PIGN is usually concomitant with the pulmonary disease3,6.Our case is unusual in several ways: pneumonia-associated PIGN typically presents with respiratory symptoms first, and acute kidney injury developing during the course of pneumonia3. More surprisingly, the patient developed NP which is characterized by even more severe respiratory symptoms1. Yet, our patient presented without respiratory complaints and pneumonia became apparent only after the development of pneumothorax. We could only identify 2 cases of pneumonia-associated PIGN who presented with renal involvement before pulmonary complaints6,7. Also, previous cases in the literature of pneumonia-associated PIGN report mostly a non-complicated course of pulmonary disease3,6. In a case series of 11 children with pneumonia-associated PIGN, only one case developed a small empyema6. Similarly, the majority of the reported cases of pneumonia-associated PIGN describe a benign course of renal disease3,6. Our patient’s kidney failure progressed rapidly, and she required 2 weeks of intermittent hemodialysis and a three-day course of pulse steroid therapy. At present, systemic corticosteroids are not recommended for patients with complicated pneumonia. A Cochrane review including 17 randomized controlled trials, of which four were conducted on children, found that corticosteroid therapy reduced mortality and morbidity in adults with severe CAP, and morbidity, but not mortality, in adults and children with non-severe CAP1. We speculate that pulse steroid treatment may have modified the course of NP in our patient.This case suggests an atypical presentation of NP with predominant renal complications is possible. Pediatricians should be aware of renal complications of respiratory diseases. Systemic steroids should be considered in the treatment of NP.References:1. de Benedictis FM, Kerem E, Chang AB, Colin AA, Zar HJ, Bush A. Complicated pneumonia in children. Lancet 2020;396:786-798.2. Spinale JM, Ruebner RL, Kaplan BS, Copelovitch L. Update on Streptococcus pneumoniae associated hemolytic uremic syndrome. Curr Opin Pediatr 2013;25:203-208.3. Carceller Lechón F, de la Torre Espí M, Porto Abal R, Écija Peiró JL. Acute glomerulonephritis associated with pneumonia: a review of three cases. Pediatr Nephrol 2010;25:161-164.4. Sawicki GS, Lu FL, Valim C, Cleveland RH, Colin AA. Necrotising pneumonia is an increasingly detected complication of pneumonia in children. Eur Respir J 2008;31:1285-1291.5. Banerjee R, Hersh AL, Newland J, Beekmann SE, Polgreen PM, Bender J, Shaw J, Copelovitch L, Kaplan BS, Shah SS. Streptococcus pneumoniae-associated Hemolytic Uremic Syndrome Among Children in North America. Pediatr Infect Dis J 2011;30:736-739.6. Srivastava T, Warady BA, Alon US. Pneumonia-associated acute glomerulonephritis. Clin Nephrol 2002;57:175-182.7. Schachter J, Pomeranz A, Berger I, Wolach B. Acute glomerulonephritis secondary to lobar pneumonia. Int J Pediatr Nephrol 1987;8:211-214.
Canine morbillivirus, also known as canine distemper virus (CDV) is one of the most important infectious diseases threat to the health and conservation of free ranging and captive wild carnivores. CDV vaccination using recombinant vaccines has been recommended for maned wolf (Chrisosyon brachyurus) after the failure of modified live vaccines that induced disease in vaccinated animals. However, there has been a lack of systematic evaluation about the response of this preventive protocol in zoo carnivores due to ethical reasons that do not approve vaccination trials with challenge in that species. Here we report a CDV outbreak in a captive population of maned wolf with an index case that was previously vaccinated with a recombinant vaccine. Five juveniles and one adult from a group of seven maned wolves housed in an outdoor exhibit died in April-May 2013 in a zoo in the Metropolitan Region, Chile. Clinical signs ranged from lethargy to digestive and respiratory signs. Diagnosis of CDV was confirmed by histopathology, antibody assays and viral molecular detection and characterization. The phylogenetic analyses of the nucleotide sequence of H gene of the CDV genome identified in the two positive samples suggest a close relation with the lineage Europe 1, commonly found South America and Chile. CDV infections in maned wolf have not been previously characterized. To the authors best knowledge is the first report of the clinical presentation of CDV in a canine species previously inmmunized with a recombinant vaccine. Further research will be necessary to understand the impact of CDV in wild maned wolf populations and new protocols (with boosters) that could improve the effectiveness of the recombinant vaccine against CDV in wild carnivores.

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