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Yasser Bagheri

and 14 more

Background: Selective IgA deficiency (SIgAD) is the most prevalent primary immunodeficiency with almost unknown etiology. This study aimed to investigate the clinical diagnostic and prognostic values of lymphocytes subsets and function in symptomatic SIgAD patients. Methods: A total of 30 available SIgAD patients from the Iranian registry and 30 age-sex-matched healthy controls were included in the present study. We analyzed B and T cell peripheral subsets and T cell proliferation assay by flow cytometry in SIgAD patients with mild and severe clinical phenotypes. Results: Our results indicated a significant increase in naïve and transitional B cells and a strong decrease in marginal zone-like and switched memory B-cells in SIgAD patients. We found that naïve and central memory CD4+ T cell subsets, as well as Th1, Th2 and regulatory T cells have significantly decreased. On the other hand, there was a significant reduction in central and effector memory CD8+ T cell subsets, whereas proportions of both (CD4+ and CD8+) terminally differentiated effector memory T cells (TEMRA) were significantly elevated in our patients. Although some of T cell subsets in severe SIgAD were similar, decrease in marginal-zone and switched memory B cells and increase in CD21low B cell of severe SIgAD patients were slightly prominent. Moreover, the proliferation activity of CD4+ T cells was strongly impaired in SIgAD patients with a severe phenotype. Conclusion: SIgAD patients have varied cellular and humoral deficiencies. Therefore, T cell and B cell assessment might help in better understanding the heterogeneous pathogenesis and prognosis estimation of the disease. Keywords: Primary immunodeficiency, Selective IgA deficiency, B cell subsets, T cell subsets, flow cytometry, proliferation assay
Background The maturation of innate immune responses in health and atopy is still incompletely understood. Methods We aimed to evaluate age-related trajectories of the TLR3 and TLR7/8 pathways across the lifespan and whether these differ between healthy and atopic individuals. Peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) were isolated from 39 otherwise healthy atopic and 39 non-atopic subjects, aged 0-45 years. Selected cytokines involved in antiviral responses were measured by Luminex in culture supernatants of poly(I:C)- and R848-stimulated PBMCs. The non-parametric correlation between age and cytokine expression and differences in developmental trajectories between healthy and atopic were estimated. Patterns of cytokine development were identified with principal component analysis. Results Normal innate immune maturation entails significant and progressive age-related changes in the production of IL-1β, TNF-α, MIP-1β, MCP-3, IP-10, IL-10, IL-12p70 and IFN-γ upon TLR3 and/or TLR7/8 stimulation. Individual cytokines made small contributions to the observed variability; chemokines MCP-3 and IP-10 were key contributors. The development of these pathways deviated in atopic subjects with significant differences observed in the trajectories of IL-1β, MIP-1β and IL-10 synthesis. Conclusion TLR3 and TLR7/8 pathways mature during childhood, while atopy is associated with an abnormal maturation pattern. Suboptimal responses in Th1, inflammatory cytokine and chemokine production may be implicated in poor antiviral immunity in atopics, while deficient maturation of IL-10 producing capacity in the breaking of tolerance.

Qin Zhao

and 1 more

Nicholas Hess

and 4 more

Background: This study evaluates the impact of peak preoperative troponin level on outcomes of coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG) for non-ST-elevation myocardial infarction (NSTEMI). Methods: This was a retrospective review of patients undergoing isolated CABG from 2011-2018 with presentation of NSTEMI. Patients were stratified into low- and high-risk groups based on median preoperative peak troponin (1.95ng/dL). Major cardiac and cerebrovascular events (MACCE) and mortality were compared. Multivariable analysis was performed to model risk factors for MACCE and mortality. Results: This study included 1,211 patients, 607 low- (≤1.95ng/dL) and 604 high-risk (>1.95ng/dL). Patients were well-matched with respect to age and comorbidity. High-risk patients had lower median preoperative ejection fraction (46.5% [IQR 35.0%-55.0%] vs 53.0% [IQR 40.0%-58.0%]) and higher incidence of preoperative intra-aortic balloon pump (15.9% vs 8.73%). Intensive care unit (47 hours [IQR 26-82] vs 43 hours [IQR 25-69]) and hospital lengths of stay (10 days [IQR 8-13] vs 9 days [IQR 8-12]) were longer in the high-risk group (each P<0.05). Postoperative complications and thirty-day, one- and five-year rates of both MACCE and survival were similar between groups. Peak troponin >1.95ng/dL was not associated with increased hazards for MACCE, mortality, or readmission in multivariable modeling. In sub-analyses, neither increasing troponin as a continuous variable nor peak troponin >10.00ng/mL were associated with increased hazards for these outcomes. Conclusions: Higher preoperative troponin levels are associated with longer lengths of stay but not MACCE or mortality following CABG. Dictating timing of CABG for NSTEMI based on peak troponin does not appear to be warranted.

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Oktay Ucer

and 3 more

Semih Ak

and 1 more

Background: Hookah is a tobacco product of Middle Eastern origin; however, its popularity increases in Europe and the US. Despite its frequent use, hookah’s potentially detrimental effects are underestimated due to the scarcity of the relevant research. Since septoplasty is one of the most commonly performed procedures of otolaryngology practice, we aimed to investigate the impact of hookah consumption on recovery after septoplasty. Methods: Patients who underwent septoplasty in Sanliurfa Training and Research Hospital Department of Otolaryngology between January 2017 and December 2019 were divided into four groups based on their history of hookah and cigarette smoking. The patients’ prospectively collected data, including demographic features, healing time, and presence or absence of septal perforation during follow-up, were compared between these four groups. Results: The entire cohort included 270 patients. The mean patient age was 29.2±5.8 years. One hundred and thirty-two (48.9%) patients were non-smokers, 96 (35.5%) were cigarette smokers, 27 (10%) were hookah smokers, and 15 (5.6%) consumed both tobacco products regularly. Mean healing time was 10 days, and septal perforation was encountered in 10 patients (3.7%). A comparison of the groups revealed that cigarette smoking did not impact septal perforation rates (p=0.326) but prolonged the healing time. However, hookah smoking with or without cigarette smoking significantly influenced septal perforation rates and healing times. Conclusion: Patients should be questioned about hookah smoking in addition to cigarette smoking before the septoplasty procedure. Patients with a positive history of hookah smoking should be followed closely in terms of delayed healing and increased septal perforation rates.

George Angelidis

and 3 more

COVID-19 and nuclear cardiology: Introducing the ‘’forward” virtual visit Angelidis G, Valotassiou V, Psimadas D, Georgoulias PNuclear Medicine Laboratory, University of Thessaly, Larissa, GreeceWe read with great interest the recent review article by Kaushik A, et al. concerning the potential role of digital health applications in the present pandemic situation [1]. As the authors noted, alternative tools are needed for the optimal management of cardiovascular patients, avoiding unnecessary visits to health care facilities. The severe acute respiratory syndrome – coronavirus – 2 (SARS-CoV-2) can invade the cardiovascular cells, potentially causing life-threatening cardiac impairment [2]. In particular, patients with pre-existing cardiovascular diseases are characterized by a higher risk of adverse cardiovascular events. Therefore, most of those referred for nuclear cardiology techniques are expected to be at higher risk of developing serious coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) complications. However, the performance of the individually required diagnostic and follow-up procedures is important [3].Telemedicine applications have been used in public health emergencies, leading to several advantages in terms of safety and efficacy. In the field of nuclear cardiology, the initial evaluation of patients’ history and clinical features can take place remotely (‘’forward” virtual visit). This approach seems to be patient-centred (permitting an adequate case assessment) and conducive to self-quarantine (protecting patients, healthcare professionals, and the community from viral exposure). Importantly, possible clinical presentations of COVID-19 may be evaluated during the ‘’forward” virtual visit, as well as information regarding travel and exposure histories. Moreover, local epidemiological information may be used to adjust screening pattern, and special measures could be developed (such as isolation in dedicated ‘’hot” rooms) for patients with high-risk features. After the performance of the examination, telemedicine applications could be also used for the consultation with the patients.Telemedicine applications may contribute to a better adjustment of nuclear cardiology services under the current demanding circumstances. Of course, no telemedicine programme can be created overnight, but this approach may be of value not only during the next months but also after the end of COVID-19 pandemic [4]. For example, our nuclear medicine laboratory is located in central Greece providing services to inhabitants of mountain villages, and nearby small islands. Consequently, the use of telemedicine applications could aid our practice in the future as well, particularly during the winter months when travelling by car or sea travels may be extremely demanding.

Attila Mokánszki

and 8 more

Background Retinoblastoma (Rb) is a malignant tumor of the developing retina that affects children before the age of five years in association with inherited or early germline mutations of the RB1 gene. The genetic predisposition is also related with second primary malignancies arising de novo, or following radiotherapy which have become the leading cause of death in retinoblastoma survivors. Procedure We describe a retinoblastoma case with a novel RB1 and a synchronous MET aberration. Our goal was to identify all germline and somatic genetic alterations in available tissue samples from different time periods and to reconstruct their clonal relations using next generation sequencing (NGS). We also used structural and functional prediction of the mutant RB and MET proteins to find interactions between the defected proteins with potential causative role in the development of this uniqe form of retinoblastoma. Results In this study we detected a retinoblastoma case of non-parental origin with a novel RB1 c.2548C>T;p.(Gln850Ter) and a synchronous MET c.3029C>T;p.(Thr1010Ile) germline mutations. Following bilateral retinoblastoma the boy further developed at least four different manifestations of two independent osteosarcomas. Both histopathology and NGS findings supported the independent nature of a chondroblastic osteosarcoma of the irradiated facial bone followed by an osteoblastic sarcoma of the leg (tibia). Conclusions Because of the expanding number of registered Rb cases, the novel rare cases publication is very important to understand the molecular mechanism of this malignancy. We reported a novel form of Rb and consequential chondroblastic and osteoblastic osteosarcoma, the latter one developing pulmonary metastatses.

Ugur Balkanci

and 2 more

An Unusual Case of Necrotizing Pneumonia Presenting with Acute Kidney InjuryUgur Berkay Balkanci, MDSchool of Public Health, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, MNDavid J. Sas, DODivision of Pediatric Nephrology and Hypertension, Department of Pediatrics and Adolescent Medicine, Mayo Clinic, Rochester, MinnesotaNadir Demirel, MDDivision of Pediatric Pulmonology, Department of Pediatrics and Adolescent Medicine, Mayo Clinic, Rochester, MinnesotaCorresponding Author:Nadir Demirel, MDDivision of Pediatric Pulmonology200 First Street SWRochester, MN 55906Tel. No.: 5075380754Fax No.: 5072840727Demirel.nadir@mayo.eduKey words: postinfectious glomerulonephritis, pneumothorax, complications, complicated pneumoniaFinancial Disclosure: The authors have indicated they have no financial relationships relevant to this article to disclose.Funding: No external funding.Short title: “An unusual case of necrotizing pneumonia”To the Editor:Lower respiratory tract infections are the most common reason for hospitalization in the pediatric age group in the United States. Although pneumonia is prevalent, complicated pneumonia such as empyema, lung abscess and necrotizing pneumonia (NP) is uncommon in children1. The prevalence of complicated pneumococcal pneumonia decreased significantly after the introduction of the thirteen-valent pneumococcal vaccine in 20101. NP in the pediatric population is a severe disease characterized by extensive destruction and liquefaction of the lung tissue resulting in loss of the pulmonary parenchymal architecture, cavitation of the lung, and pleural involvement. Renal complications of complicated pneumonia are rare and mostly reported as atypical hemolytic uremic syndrome (HUS)2. Post-infectious glomerulonephritis (PIGN) is an unexpected complication of bacterial pneumonia3.We report a six-year-old otherwise healthy fully vaccinated girl with a 4-day history of fever, abdominal pain, vomiting, non-bloody diarrhea, and poor oral intake. Parents reported decreased urine output and dark-colored urine on the day of admission. Initial evaluation revealed serum creatinine of 5.01 mg/dL and blood urea nitrogen of 86 mg/dL, elevated acute phase reactants suggesting acute kidney injury (AKI) in the setting of an undiagnosed acute infectious process. The patient was admitted with decreased effective circulatory volume. Urinalysis revealed hematuria with <25% dysmorphic red blood cells (RBCs), proteinuria, pyuria, and RBC casts and granular casts, suggestive of acute glomerulonephritis.She was started on intermittent hemodialysis at day 2 of admission to address uremia, fluid overload, and hyperphosphatemia. A renal biopsy revealed diffuse exudative glomerulonephritis, consistent with infection-related glomerulonephritis. ASO, Anti-DNase B were negative; C3, C4 levels were low. She was treated with pulse IV methylprednisolone 10mg/kg/day for three days. The first 5 days in the hospital, the patient remained afebrile and her lung exam was normal without respiratory symptoms.On day six of admission, she developed acute right-sided chest pain and shortness of breath during hemodialysis. Chest x-ray (CXR) revealed a large right-sided tension pneumothorax, prompting therapeutic chest tube placement. Repeat CXR revealed reexpansion of the right lung and a significant right upper lobe consolidation with an ovoid hyperlucency and an air-fluid level. A chest CT scan confirmed the diagnosis of NP with multiple cavities (Image).Flexible bronchoscopy was performed with bronchoalveolar lavage revealing 42% neutrophils and negative cultures. She was treated with broad spectrum intravenous antibiotics.During admission, she developed hypertension, well-controlled with scheduled enalapril and amlodipine, as well as isradipine as needed. On day 14 of admission, hemodialysis was discontinued as kidney function improved, and chest tube was removed. She was discharged at day 26 of admission on intravenous ceftriaxone and oral metronidazole to complete 30 days of treatment. A repeat chest CT at end of treatment showed complete resolution of NP. Renal functions and blood pressure normalized on follow up.NP is characterized by persistent high fevers and prolonged hospitalizations even with appropriate antibiotic treatment1. Most often, NP affects immunocompetent children with no underlying risk factors4. The pathophysiology of this complication is acute liquefactive necrosis of the lung parenchyma which results in the development of pneumatoceles4. The most common pathogen causing NP is Streptococcus pneumoniae followed by Staphylococcus aureus and Streptococcus pyogenes. Other rarer bacterial and viral pathogens are Mycoplasma pneumonia, Influenza, and Adenovirus1. Identifying the microbiologic pathogen can be challenging and is only made in 50% of cases1. In our case, we did not isolate the causative microorganism. NP typically resolves without residual morbidity, even after a protracted course1,4.Pleural involvement is almost universal in NP, and the course of pleural disease often determines duration and outcome, particularly as it relates to the complication of bronchopleural fistula (BPF)1. BPF is most likely due to the necrotic development of a connection between bronchial space and pleural space4. BPF formation is associated with a significantly longer hospital stay in children with NP4. Yet, most cases heal without surgical intervention4. Tension pneumothorax has been observed as a rare complication of NP1.Renal involvement in complicated pneumonia is rare. Atypical HUS has been reported as a complication of pneumonia, particularly associated with empyema. (most commonly due to invasive Streptococcus pneumoniae)2. In a case series of 37 cases of atypical HUS, 34 patients (92%) had pneumonia with 10 patients (29%) with NP5. Less commonly, pneumonia can be associated with PIGN. PIGN is the most common glomerulonephritis in children worldwide. Pneumonia-associated PIGN is rare. In a case series from the US, PIGN accounted for 0.15% of admissions for pneumonia and 0.39% of admissions for glomerulonephritis6. Pneumonia-associated PIGN is known to be caused by various bacterial pathogens including Streptococcus pneumoniae, Staphylococcus aureus, Mycoplasma pneumoniae, Chlamydia pneumoniae, Nocardia, and Coxiella burnetii3. Different from the usual presentation of the PIGN (in which the time interval between a pharyngeal group A Streptococcal infection and PIGN is 6 to 10 days), pneumonia-associated PIGN is usually concomitant with the pulmonary disease3,6.Our case is unusual in several ways: pneumonia-associated PIGN typically presents with respiratory symptoms first, and acute kidney injury developing during the course of pneumonia3. More surprisingly, the patient developed NP which is characterized by even more severe respiratory symptoms1. Yet, our patient presented without respiratory complaints and pneumonia became apparent only after the development of pneumothorax. We could only identify 2 cases of pneumonia-associated PIGN who presented with renal involvement before pulmonary complaints6,7. Also, previous cases in the literature of pneumonia-associated PIGN report mostly a non-complicated course of pulmonary disease3,6. In a case series of 11 children with pneumonia-associated PIGN, only one case developed a small empyema6. Similarly, the majority of the reported cases of pneumonia-associated PIGN describe a benign course of renal disease3,6. Our patient’s kidney failure progressed rapidly, and she required 2 weeks of intermittent hemodialysis and a three-day course of pulse steroid therapy. At present, systemic corticosteroids are not recommended for patients with complicated pneumonia. A Cochrane review including 17 randomized controlled trials, of which four were conducted on children, found that corticosteroid therapy reduced mortality and morbidity in adults with severe CAP, and morbidity, but not mortality, in adults and children with non-severe CAP1. We speculate that pulse steroid treatment may have modified the course of NP in our patient.This case suggests an atypical presentation of NP with predominant renal complications is possible. Pediatricians should be aware of renal complications of respiratory diseases. Systemic steroids should be considered in the treatment of NP.References:1. de Benedictis FM, Kerem E, Chang AB, Colin AA, Zar HJ, Bush A. Complicated pneumonia in children. Lancet 2020;396:786-798.2. Spinale JM, Ruebner RL, Kaplan BS, Copelovitch L. Update on Streptococcus pneumoniae associated hemolytic uremic syndrome. Curr Opin Pediatr 2013;25:203-208.3. Carceller Lechón F, de la Torre Espí M, Porto Abal R, Écija Peiró JL. Acute glomerulonephritis associated with pneumonia: a review of three cases. Pediatr Nephrol 2010;25:161-164.4. Sawicki GS, Lu FL, Valim C, Cleveland RH, Colin AA. Necrotising pneumonia is an increasingly detected complication of pneumonia in children. Eur Respir J 2008;31:1285-1291.5. Banerjee R, Hersh AL, Newland J, Beekmann SE, Polgreen PM, Bender J, Shaw J, Copelovitch L, Kaplan BS, Shah SS. Streptococcus pneumoniae-associated Hemolytic Uremic Syndrome Among Children in North America. Pediatr Infect Dis J 2011;30:736-739.6. Srivastava T, Warady BA, Alon US. Pneumonia-associated acute glomerulonephritis. Clin Nephrol 2002;57:175-182.7. Schachter J, Pomeranz A, Berger I, Wolach B. Acute glomerulonephritis secondary to lobar pneumonia. Int J Pediatr Nephrol 1987;8:211-214.
Canine morbillivirus, also known as canine distemper virus (CDV) is one of the most important infectious diseases threat to the health and conservation of free ranging and captive wild carnivores. CDV vaccination using recombinant vaccines has been recommended for maned wolf (Chrisosyon brachyurus) after the failure of modified live vaccines that induced disease in vaccinated animals. However, there has been a lack of systematic evaluation about the response of this preventive protocol in zoo carnivores due to ethical reasons that do not approve vaccination trials with challenge in that species. Here we report a CDV outbreak in a captive population of maned wolf with an index case that was previously vaccinated with a recombinant vaccine. Five juveniles and one adult from a group of seven maned wolves housed in an outdoor exhibit died in April-May 2013 in a zoo in the Metropolitan Region, Chile. Clinical signs ranged from lethargy to digestive and respiratory signs. Diagnosis of CDV was confirmed by histopathology, antibody assays and viral molecular detection and characterization. The phylogenetic analyses of the nucleotide sequence of H gene of the CDV genome identified in the two positive samples suggest a close relation with the lineage Europe 1, commonly found South America and Chile. CDV infections in maned wolf have not been previously characterized. To the authors best knowledge is the first report of the clinical presentation of CDV in a canine species previously inmmunized with a recombinant vaccine. Further research will be necessary to understand the impact of CDV in wild maned wolf populations and new protocols (with boosters) that could improve the effectiveness of the recombinant vaccine against CDV in wild carnivores.

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