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Andrea Montalto

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Background. Right ventricular failure (RVF) is a severe event that increases perioperative mortality after Left Ventricle Assist Device (LVAD) implantation. RV function is particularly affected by the LVAD speed by changing RV preload and afterload as well as the position of the interventricular septum. However, there are no studies focusing on the relationship between pump speed optimization and risk factors for development of lateRVF. Methods. Between 2015 and 2019,50 consecutive patients received LVAD implantation at San Camillo Hospital in Rome. Of these, 38 who underwent pump speed optimization were included. Post optimization hemodynamic data were collected. We assessed: a new Hemodynamic Index (HI), calculated as follows HI=MAP x PCWP/CVP x RPM set/RPM max; risk factors for late RVF, which was defined as the requirement for 7 days or more of inotropic support. Results 10 patients had late RVF after LVAD implantation. 5 patients required diuretic therapy and speed optimization. In 3 patients inotropic support with adrenaline 0.05 g/kg/min was started. 2 patients required prolonged continuous veno-venous hemofiltration and high dosage inotropic support. Multivariate analysis revealed that a low HI (odds ratio 11.5, 95 % confidence interval,1.85-65.5,p[.003] was an independent risk factor for late RVF after LVAD implantation. Conclusion A low HI, according to our study, is a significant risk factor for the development of RVF after LVAD implantation. We suggest adopting this index during the follow-up to stratify the different hemodynamic profiles and modify the therapeutic strategies according to the different HI levels obtained for every single patient.

Fan He

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Objectives: We sought to determine the technical feasibility of surgical bipolar radiofrequency ablation (endoscopic maze procedure) through the left chest cavity in patients with an interrupted inferior vena cava (IVC). Methods and Results: A 57-year-old female with paroxysmal atrial fibrillation (AF) and an interrupted IVC was referred to our hospital for radiofrequency ablation. Transseptal puncture and left atrium (LA) ablation failed through a standard IVC approach via the femoral vein due to intrahepatic interruption of IVC. We performed a modified surgical bipolar radiofrequency ablation (RF) on the beating heart through 3 ports in the left chest wall. Pulmonary vein isolation and ablation of the left atrium were achieved by bipolar radiofrequency ablation. Ganglionic plexus ablation was completed using the ablation pen. The left atrial appendage was excluded. No complications occurred during or after the procedure. The patient was discharged with sinus rhythm 3 days later after the procedure. She was taking amiodarone (100mg bid) within 6 months after the procedure, and had no recurrence of AF. Conclusions: We successfully performed a modified mini-maze procedure in a patient with paroxysmal AF and IVC interruption through the left thoracic cavity under video-assisted thoracoscopic surgery (VATS). We can successfully complete pulmonary vein (PV) isolation, left atrium box isolation, cardiac ganglia ablation, Marshall ligament ablation, and coronary sinus epicardium ablation using this technique.

Gianni Angelini

and 11 more

Background: The success of coronary artery bypass grafting surgery (CABG) is dependent on long-term graft patency, which is negatively related to early wall thickening. Avoiding high-pressure distension testing for leaks and preserving the surrounding pedicle of fat and adventitia during vein harvesting may reduce wall thickening. Methods: A single-centre, factorial randomised controlled trial was carried out to compare the impact of testing for leaks under high versus low pressure and harvesting the vein with versus without the pedicle in patients undergoing CABG. The primary outcomes were graft wall thickness, as indicator of medial-intimal hyperplasia, and lumen diameter assessed using intravascular ultrasound after 12 months. Results: 96 eligible participants were recruited. With conventional harvest, low-pressure testing tended to yield a thinner vessel wall compared to high-pressure (mean difference MD (low minus high) -0.059mm, 95%CI -0.12, +0.0039, p=0.066). With high pressure testing, veins harvested with the pedicle fat tended to have a thinner vessel wall than those harvested conventionally (MD (pedicle minus conventional) -0.057mm, 95%CI -0.12, +0.0037, p=0.066, test for interaction p=0.07). Lumen diameter was similar across groups (harvest comparison p=0.81; pressure comparison p=0.24). Low pressure testing was associated with fewer hospital admissions in the 12 months following surgery (p=0.0008). Harvesting the vein with the pedicle fat was associated with more complications during the index admission (p=0.0041). Conclusions: Conventional saphenous vein graft preparation with low pressure distension and harvesting the vein with a surrounding pedicle yielded similar graft wall thickness after 12 months, but low pressure was associated with fewer adverse events.

Berhane Worku

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If it an’t broke, don’t fix itBerhane Worku MD1, Meghann M Fitzgerald21: Department of Cardiothoracic Surgery, Weill Cornell Medical College2. Department of Anesthesiology, Weill Cornell Medical CollegeAntifibrinolytics and TEGCorresponding Author:Berhane WorkuDepartment of Cardiothoracic SurgeryWeill Cornell Medical College525 East 68th Street M-404New York, NY 10065Despite evidence of associated morbidity and mortality, blood products are administered to over half of cardiac surgical patients, accounting for approximately 20% of their worldwide use1,2. These statistics attest to the ubiquitous and refractory nature of bleeding after cardiac surgery. In an attempt to curb the excessive use of blood products after cardiac surgery viscoelastic testing in the form of thromboelastography (TEG) and rotational thromboelastometry (ROTEM) have been increasingly utilized. Rapid intraoperative assessment allows for targeted correction of coagulopathy due to residual heparinization, coagulation factor deficiency, hypofibrinogenemia, and platelet dysfunction. Hyperfibrinolysis can also be assessed, although management is rarely altered as the routine administration of lysine analog antifibrinolytics has been given a class I recommendation by the Society of Thoracic Surgeons and the Society of Cardiovascular Anesthesiologists and has become the standard practice at most cardiac surgical centers.Cardiopulmonary bypass is known to result in transient t-PA and subsequent d-dimer level elevations (a marker of hyperfibrinolysis)3,4. The efficacy of the lysine analog antifibrinolytics, tranexamic acid andε-aminocaproic acid, have been extensively studied in this setting. D-dimer levels are significantly blunted by antifibrinolytics, and an abundance of literature demonstrates reductions in chest tube bleeding, blood product use, and reoperation for bleeding with the use of these agents4-6. A similar amount of evidence points to their safety, with no increase in thrombotic complications, including stroke, myocardial infarction, graft closure, or mortality seen5-7. A higher risk of seizures is noted with tranexamic acid, although this appears to be dose dependent and nonexistent with ε-aminocaproic acid2. If the ultimate goal is to reduce bleeding and blood product usage, it would seem that antifibrinolytics offer one way to do this safely.In the current manuscript, Sussman et. al. retrospectively analyze 78 cardiac surgical patients who had an intraoperative TEG performed with the goal of describing the distribution of fibrinolytic phenotypes in this population8. Forty five percent demonstrated physiologic fibrinolysis, 32% hypo fibrinolysis, and 23% hyperfibrinolysis (LY30 <0.8%, 0.8-3%, >3%). Forty seven percent received antifibrinolytic agents. Outcomes including “morbidity” and time with chest tube were higher in those who received antifibrinolytics. This is a perhaps the first study of its kind to describe the prevalence of hyperfibrinolysis in cardiac surgical patients as measured by point of care testing. It is also a very relevant study in an era in which the benefits of targeted therapy for coagulopathy are increasingly recognized.The current data suggests that half of patients undergoing cardiac surgery demonstrate physiologic fibrinolysis and a third demonstratehypo fibrinolysis (a theoretically pro thrombotic state)8. The worse outcomes seen in patients receiving antifibrinolytics suggests that their administration in the setting of a potentially prothrombotic state was to blame. However, several limitations merit mention. It appears that TEG is not routinely performed on all patients. The population under study may therefore reflect one undergoing more extensive surgery with more coagulopathy in whom TEG is more likely to be performed. Since the actual timing of the TEG is not detailed, the true baseline fibrinolytic phenotype of patients treated with antifibrinolytics is not clear as the TEG results may have been obtained after the initiation of antifibrinolytics. Furthermore, while surgical procedures performed weren’t delineated, patients receiving antifibrinolytics more frequently had “valve disease” and “heart failure” and underwent on-pump surgery. Patients receiving antifibrinolytic therapy were therefore sicker and likely underwent more extensive on-pump valve surgery, while patients who did not receive antifibrinolytics were most likely undergoing off-pump coronary bypass surgery. Finally, the increased “morbidity” in patients receiving antifibrinolytics appear to be bleeding related (thrombotic complications were not listed separately). Perhaps additional antifibrinolytics were needed.The authors are to be commended for recognizing a lack of complete understanding of coagulation in the cardiac surgical population and attempting to determine the benefit of targeted antifibrinolytic therapy. Any time a practice is performed indiscriminately, there is room for improvement. However, before we contemplate altering an evidence-based practice that reduces bleeding, we need to demonstrate a benefit for such a change. Not all bleeding is purely surgical or purely medical; there is overlap. Few areas of medicine highlight how much art prevails over our current scientific understanding. Too many times since the introduction of point-of-care testing, the surgeon and anesthesiologist battle over the merits of administering blood products to a clinically bleeding patient with a normal coagulation profile. Targeted correction of coagulopathy is conceptually attractive, but the reality is not as clearly defined. Reductions in bleeding seen with antifibrinolytics occur both in on-pump and off-pump surgery which should be enough proof to continue its application until better evidence and understanding emerges6. Certainly, there is more work to be done, but with regard to antifibrinolytics it seems fitting to recognize: If it ain’t broke, don’t fix it.REFERENCESAbdelmotieleb M, Agarwal S. Viscoelastic testing in cardiac surgery. Transfusion 2020;60:52-60Harvey R, Salehi A. Con: Antifibrinolytics should not be used routinely in low-risk cardiac surgery. J Cardiothorac Vasc Anesth 2016;30:248-251Gielen C, Brand A, van Heerde W, Stijnen T, Klautz R, Eikenboom J. Hemostatic alterations during coronary artery bypass grafting. Thromb Res 2016;140:140-146Slaughter T, Faghih F, Greenberg C, Leslie J, Sladen R. The effects of ε-aminocaproic acid on fibrinolysis and thrombin generation during cardiac surgery. Anesth Analg 1997;85:1221-6Myles PS, Smith JA, Forbes A, Silbert B, Jayarajah M, Painter T, Cooper J, Marasco S, McNeil J, Bussieres JS, McGuinness S, Byrne K, Chan MTV, Landoni G, Wallace S. Tranexamic acid in patients undergoing coronary-artery surgery. N Engl J Med 2017;376:136-48Zhang Y, Bai Y, Chen M, Zhou Y, Yu X, Zhou H, Chen G. The safety and efficiency of intravenous administration of tranexamic acid in coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG): a meta-analysis of 28 randomized controlled trials. BMC Anesthesiol 2019;19:104Kasrki J, Djaiani G, Carroll J, Iwanochko M, Seneviratne P, Liu P, Kucharczyk W, Fedorko L, David T, Cheng D. Tranexamic acid and early saphenous vein graft patency in conventional coronary artery bypass graft surgery: A prospective randomized controlled clinical trial. J Thorac Cardiovasc Surg 2005;130:309-14Sussman MS, Urrechaga EM, Cioci AC, Iyengar RS, Herrington TJ, Ryon EL, Namias N, Galbut DL, Salerno TA, Proctor KG. Do all cardiac surgery patients benefit from antifibrinolytic therapy? J Card Surg in press

Hazal Gezmis

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Aim of the Study: Multiple sclerosis (MS) is an autoimmune disorder causing demyelination in axons. Available therapies target different molecules, but not all have therapeutic effects on disease progression, and this effect can only be seen after a long-time administration. Interferon beta (IFN-β), an MS therapy for many years, slows down the disease progression and reduces disease symptoms by targeting T cells. Yet, a considerable portion of the patient has experienced no therapeutic response to IFN-β. It is necessary to determine disease-specific biomarkers which allow early diagnosis or treatment of MS. Here, it was aimed to determine the effects of interleukin 10 (IL10) and 23 (IL23A) as well as forkhead box P3 (FOXP3) genes on MS after IFN-β therapy. Materials & Methods: Peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) were extracted to isolate CD4+ and CD25+ T cells. Cytotoxicity assays were performed on each cell type for determining optimum drug concentration. Then, cells were cultured and determined drug concentration was administered to the cells to measure gene expressions with RT-PCR. Results: It was found that the cytotoxic effect of IFN-β was more efficient as the exposure time was expanded regardless of drug concentration. Moreover, CD25+ T lymphocytes were more resistant to IFN-β. IL23A was down-regulated, whereas FOXP3 was up-regulated at 48h in CD4+ T cells. For CD25+ T cells, the graded increase of FOXP3 was obtained while IL10 expression was gradually decreased throughout the drug intake, significantly. Conclusion: Although considerable change in expression was obtained, the long-term IFN-β effect on both genes and cells should be determined by follow-up at least a year. Keywords: MS, IFN-β, IL23A, FOXP3, IL10, T cells

Constantin Thieme

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Oktay Ucer

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Semih Ak

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Background: Hookah is a tobacco product of Middle Eastern origin; however, its popularity increases in Europe and the US. Despite its frequent use, hookah’s potentially detrimental effects are underestimated due to the scarcity of the relevant research. Since septoplasty is one of the most commonly performed procedures of otolaryngology practice, we aimed to investigate the impact of hookah consumption on recovery after septoplasty. Methods: Patients who underwent septoplasty in Sanliurfa Training and Research Hospital Department of Otolaryngology between January 2017 and December 2019 were divided into four groups based on their history of hookah and cigarette smoking. The patients’ prospectively collected data, including demographic features, healing time, and presence or absence of septal perforation during follow-up, were compared between these four groups. Results: The entire cohort included 270 patients. The mean patient age was 29.2±5.8 years. One hundred and thirty-two (48.9%) patients were non-smokers, 96 (35.5%) were cigarette smokers, 27 (10%) were hookah smokers, and 15 (5.6%) consumed both tobacco products regularly. Mean healing time was 10 days, and septal perforation was encountered in 10 patients (3.7%). A comparison of the groups revealed that cigarette smoking did not impact septal perforation rates (p=0.326) but prolonged the healing time. However, hookah smoking with or without cigarette smoking significantly influenced septal perforation rates and healing times. Conclusion: Patients should be questioned about hookah smoking in addition to cigarette smoking before the septoplasty procedure. Patients with a positive history of hookah smoking should be followed closely in terms of delayed healing and increased septal perforation rates.

George Angelidis

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COVID-19 and nuclear cardiology: Introducing the ‘’forward” virtual visit Angelidis G, Valotassiou V, Psimadas D, Georgoulias PNuclear Medicine Laboratory, University of Thessaly, Larissa, GreeceWe read with great interest the recent review article by Kaushik A, et al. concerning the potential role of digital health applications in the present pandemic situation [1]. As the authors noted, alternative tools are needed for the optimal management of cardiovascular patients, avoiding unnecessary visits to health care facilities. The severe acute respiratory syndrome – coronavirus – 2 (SARS-CoV-2) can invade the cardiovascular cells, potentially causing life-threatening cardiac impairment [2]. In particular, patients with pre-existing cardiovascular diseases are characterized by a higher risk of adverse cardiovascular events. Therefore, most of those referred for nuclear cardiology techniques are expected to be at higher risk of developing serious coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) complications. However, the performance of the individually required diagnostic and follow-up procedures is important [3].Telemedicine applications have been used in public health emergencies, leading to several advantages in terms of safety and efficacy. In the field of nuclear cardiology, the initial evaluation of patients’ history and clinical features can take place remotely (‘’forward” virtual visit). This approach seems to be patient-centred (permitting an adequate case assessment) and conducive to self-quarantine (protecting patients, healthcare professionals, and the community from viral exposure). Importantly, possible clinical presentations of COVID-19 may be evaluated during the ‘’forward” virtual visit, as well as information regarding travel and exposure histories. Moreover, local epidemiological information may be used to adjust screening pattern, and special measures could be developed (such as isolation in dedicated ‘’hot” rooms) for patients with high-risk features. After the performance of the examination, telemedicine applications could be also used for the consultation with the patients.Telemedicine applications may contribute to a better adjustment of nuclear cardiology services under the current demanding circumstances. Of course, no telemedicine programme can be created overnight, but this approach may be of value not only during the next months but also after the end of COVID-19 pandemic [4]. For example, our nuclear medicine laboratory is located in central Greece providing services to inhabitants of mountain villages, and nearby small islands. Consequently, the use of telemedicine applications could aid our practice in the future as well, particularly during the winter months when travelling by car or sea travels may be extremely demanding.

Attila Mokánszki

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Background Retinoblastoma (Rb) is a malignant tumor of the developing retina that affects children before the age of five years in association with inherited or early germline mutations of the RB1 gene. The genetic predisposition is also related with second primary malignancies arising de novo, or following radiotherapy which have become the leading cause of death in retinoblastoma survivors. Procedure We describe a retinoblastoma case with a novel RB1 and a synchronous MET aberration. Our goal was to identify all germline and somatic genetic alterations in available tissue samples from different time periods and to reconstruct their clonal relations using next generation sequencing (NGS). We also used structural and functional prediction of the mutant RB and MET proteins to find interactions between the defected proteins with potential causative role in the development of this uniqe form of retinoblastoma. Results In this study we detected a retinoblastoma case of non-parental origin with a novel RB1 c.2548C>T;p.(Gln850Ter) and a synchronous MET c.3029C>T;p.(Thr1010Ile) germline mutations. Following bilateral retinoblastoma the boy further developed at least four different manifestations of two independent osteosarcomas. Both histopathology and NGS findings supported the independent nature of a chondroblastic osteosarcoma of the irradiated facial bone followed by an osteoblastic sarcoma of the leg (tibia). Conclusions Because of the expanding number of registered Rb cases, the novel rare cases publication is very important to understand the molecular mechanism of this malignancy. We reported a novel form of Rb and consequential chondroblastic and osteoblastic osteosarcoma, the latter one developing pulmonary metastatses.

Ugur Balkanci

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An Unusual Case of Necrotizing Pneumonia Presenting with Acute Kidney InjuryUgur Berkay Balkanci, MDSchool of Public Health, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, MNDavid J. Sas, DODivision of Pediatric Nephrology and Hypertension, Department of Pediatrics and Adolescent Medicine, Mayo Clinic, Rochester, MinnesotaNadir Demirel, MDDivision of Pediatric Pulmonology, Department of Pediatrics and Adolescent Medicine, Mayo Clinic, Rochester, MinnesotaCorresponding Author:Nadir Demirel, MDDivision of Pediatric Pulmonology200 First Street SWRochester, MN 55906Tel. No.: 5075380754Fax No.: 5072840727Demirel.nadir@mayo.eduKey words: postinfectious glomerulonephritis, pneumothorax, complications, complicated pneumoniaFinancial Disclosure: The authors have indicated they have no financial relationships relevant to this article to disclose.Funding: No external funding.Short title: “An unusual case of necrotizing pneumonia”To the Editor:Lower respiratory tract infections are the most common reason for hospitalization in the pediatric age group in the United States. Although pneumonia is prevalent, complicated pneumonia such as empyema, lung abscess and necrotizing pneumonia (NP) is uncommon in children1. The prevalence of complicated pneumococcal pneumonia decreased significantly after the introduction of the thirteen-valent pneumococcal vaccine in 20101. NP in the pediatric population is a severe disease characterized by extensive destruction and liquefaction of the lung tissue resulting in loss of the pulmonary parenchymal architecture, cavitation of the lung, and pleural involvement. Renal complications of complicated pneumonia are rare and mostly reported as atypical hemolytic uremic syndrome (HUS)2. Post-infectious glomerulonephritis (PIGN) is an unexpected complication of bacterial pneumonia3.We report a six-year-old otherwise healthy fully vaccinated girl with a 4-day history of fever, abdominal pain, vomiting, non-bloody diarrhea, and poor oral intake. Parents reported decreased urine output and dark-colored urine on the day of admission. Initial evaluation revealed serum creatinine of 5.01 mg/dL and blood urea nitrogen of 86 mg/dL, elevated acute phase reactants suggesting acute kidney injury (AKI) in the setting of an undiagnosed acute infectious process. The patient was admitted with decreased effective circulatory volume. Urinalysis revealed hematuria with <25% dysmorphic red blood cells (RBCs), proteinuria, pyuria, and RBC casts and granular casts, suggestive of acute glomerulonephritis.She was started on intermittent hemodialysis at day 2 of admission to address uremia, fluid overload, and hyperphosphatemia. A renal biopsy revealed diffuse exudative glomerulonephritis, consistent with infection-related glomerulonephritis. ASO, Anti-DNase B were negative; C3, C4 levels were low. She was treated with pulse IV methylprednisolone 10mg/kg/day for three days. The first 5 days in the hospital, the patient remained afebrile and her lung exam was normal without respiratory symptoms.On day six of admission, she developed acute right-sided chest pain and shortness of breath during hemodialysis. Chest x-ray (CXR) revealed a large right-sided tension pneumothorax, prompting therapeutic chest tube placement. Repeat CXR revealed reexpansion of the right lung and a significant right upper lobe consolidation with an ovoid hyperlucency and an air-fluid level. A chest CT scan confirmed the diagnosis of NP with multiple cavities (Image).Flexible bronchoscopy was performed with bronchoalveolar lavage revealing 42% neutrophils and negative cultures. She was treated with broad spectrum intravenous antibiotics.During admission, she developed hypertension, well-controlled with scheduled enalapril and amlodipine, as well as isradipine as needed. On day 14 of admission, hemodialysis was discontinued as kidney function improved, and chest tube was removed. She was discharged at day 26 of admission on intravenous ceftriaxone and oral metronidazole to complete 30 days of treatment. A repeat chest CT at end of treatment showed complete resolution of NP. Renal functions and blood pressure normalized on follow up.NP is characterized by persistent high fevers and prolonged hospitalizations even with appropriate antibiotic treatment1. Most often, NP affects immunocompetent children with no underlying risk factors4. The pathophysiology of this complication is acute liquefactive necrosis of the lung parenchyma which results in the development of pneumatoceles4. The most common pathogen causing NP is Streptococcus pneumoniae followed by Staphylococcus aureus and Streptococcus pyogenes. Other rarer bacterial and viral pathogens are Mycoplasma pneumonia, Influenza, and Adenovirus1. Identifying the microbiologic pathogen can be challenging and is only made in 50% of cases1. In our case, we did not isolate the causative microorganism. NP typically resolves without residual morbidity, even after a protracted course1,4.Pleural involvement is almost universal in NP, and the course of pleural disease often determines duration and outcome, particularly as it relates to the complication of bronchopleural fistula (BPF)1. BPF is most likely due to the necrotic development of a connection between bronchial space and pleural space4. BPF formation is associated with a significantly longer hospital stay in children with NP4. Yet, most cases heal without surgical intervention4. Tension pneumothorax has been observed as a rare complication of NP1.Renal involvement in complicated pneumonia is rare. Atypical HUS has been reported as a complication of pneumonia, particularly associated with empyema. (most commonly due to invasive Streptococcus pneumoniae)2. In a case series of 37 cases of atypical HUS, 34 patients (92%) had pneumonia with 10 patients (29%) with NP5. Less commonly, pneumonia can be associated with PIGN. PIGN is the most common glomerulonephritis in children worldwide. Pneumonia-associated PIGN is rare. In a case series from the US, PIGN accounted for 0.15% of admissions for pneumonia and 0.39% of admissions for glomerulonephritis6. Pneumonia-associated PIGN is known to be caused by various bacterial pathogens including Streptococcus pneumoniae, Staphylococcus aureus, Mycoplasma pneumoniae, Chlamydia pneumoniae, Nocardia, and Coxiella burnetii3. Different from the usual presentation of the PIGN (in which the time interval between a pharyngeal group A Streptococcal infection and PIGN is 6 to 10 days), pneumonia-associated PIGN is usually concomitant with the pulmonary disease3,6.Our case is unusual in several ways: pneumonia-associated PIGN typically presents with respiratory symptoms first, and acute kidney injury developing during the course of pneumonia3. More surprisingly, the patient developed NP which is characterized by even more severe respiratory symptoms1. Yet, our patient presented without respiratory complaints and pneumonia became apparent only after the development of pneumothorax. We could only identify 2 cases of pneumonia-associated PIGN who presented with renal involvement before pulmonary complaints6,7. Also, previous cases in the literature of pneumonia-associated PIGN report mostly a non-complicated course of pulmonary disease3,6. In a case series of 11 children with pneumonia-associated PIGN, only one case developed a small empyema6. Similarly, the majority of the reported cases of pneumonia-associated PIGN describe a benign course of renal disease3,6. Our patient’s kidney failure progressed rapidly, and she required 2 weeks of intermittent hemodialysis and a three-day course of pulse steroid therapy. At present, systemic corticosteroids are not recommended for patients with complicated pneumonia. A Cochrane review including 17 randomized controlled trials, of which four were conducted on children, found that corticosteroid therapy reduced mortality and morbidity in adults with severe CAP, and morbidity, but not mortality, in adults and children with non-severe CAP1. We speculate that pulse steroid treatment may have modified the course of NP in our patient.This case suggests an atypical presentation of NP with predominant renal complications is possible. Pediatricians should be aware of renal complications of respiratory diseases. Systemic steroids should be considered in the treatment of NP.References:1. de Benedictis FM, Kerem E, Chang AB, Colin AA, Zar HJ, Bush A. Complicated pneumonia in children. Lancet 2020;396:786-798.2. Spinale JM, Ruebner RL, Kaplan BS, Copelovitch L. Update on Streptococcus pneumoniae associated hemolytic uremic syndrome. Curr Opin Pediatr 2013;25:203-208.3. Carceller Lechón F, de la Torre Espí M, Porto Abal R, Écija Peiró JL. Acute glomerulonephritis associated with pneumonia: a review of three cases. Pediatr Nephrol 2010;25:161-164.4. Sawicki GS, Lu FL, Valim C, Cleveland RH, Colin AA. Necrotising pneumonia is an increasingly detected complication of pneumonia in children. Eur Respir J 2008;31:1285-1291.5. Banerjee R, Hersh AL, Newland J, Beekmann SE, Polgreen PM, Bender J, Shaw J, Copelovitch L, Kaplan BS, Shah SS. Streptococcus pneumoniae-associated Hemolytic Uremic Syndrome Among Children in North America. Pediatr Infect Dis J 2011;30:736-739.6. Srivastava T, Warady BA, Alon US. Pneumonia-associated acute glomerulonephritis. Clin Nephrol 2002;57:175-182.7. Schachter J, Pomeranz A, Berger I, Wolach B. Acute glomerulonephritis secondary to lobar pneumonia. Int J Pediatr Nephrol 1987;8:211-214.
Canine morbillivirus, also known as canine distemper virus (CDV) is one of the most important infectious diseases threat to the health and conservation of free ranging and captive wild carnivores. CDV vaccination using recombinant vaccines has been recommended for maned wolf (Chrisosyon brachyurus) after the failure of modified live vaccines that induced disease in vaccinated animals. However, there has been a lack of systematic evaluation about the response of this preventive protocol in zoo carnivores due to ethical reasons that do not approve vaccination trials with challenge in that species. Here we report a CDV outbreak in a captive population of maned wolf with an index case that was previously vaccinated with a recombinant vaccine. Five juveniles and one adult from a group of seven maned wolves housed in an outdoor exhibit died in April-May 2013 in a zoo in the Metropolitan Region, Chile. Clinical signs ranged from lethargy to digestive and respiratory signs. Diagnosis of CDV was confirmed by histopathology, antibody assays and viral molecular detection and characterization. The phylogenetic analyses of the nucleotide sequence of H gene of the CDV genome identified in the two positive samples suggest a close relation with the lineage Europe 1, commonly found South America and Chile. CDV infections in maned wolf have not been previously characterized. To the authors best knowledge is the first report of the clinical presentation of CDV in a canine species previously inmmunized with a recombinant vaccine. Further research will be necessary to understand the impact of CDV in wild maned wolf populations and new protocols (with boosters) that could improve the effectiveness of the recombinant vaccine against CDV in wild carnivores.

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