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Xinyu Tian

and 5 more

Aims: Non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) is the most common clinical lung cancer. Polymorphonuclear-myeloid derived suppressor cells (PMN-MDSCs), which are the major population of MDSCs, are involved in NSCLC progression. Recently, it was found that lectin-type oxidized LDL receptor 1 (LOX-1) could identify humsn PMN-MDSCs. However, the role of CD15+LOX-1+ PMN-MDSCs in NSCLC early diagnosis has not been revealed. Here, we tried to confirm the application of the newly-identified CD15+LOX-1+ PMN-MDSCs in the early diagnosis of NSCLC. Methods: Flow cytometry (FCM) was used to detect the proportion of CD15+LOX-1+ PMN-MDSCs in the peripheral blood (PB) of healthy controls (HC) and NSCLC patients. The correlation of CD15+LOX-1+ PMN-MDSC frequency with levels of cytokeratin 19-fragments (CYFRA21-1), carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA), and carbohydrate antigen 125 (CA125) was analyzed. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve was used to estimate the diagnostic efficacy of CD15+LOX-1+ PMN-MDSCs for NSCLC. Additionally, the association of CD15+LOX-1+ PMN-MDSC frequency with NSCLC prognosis/recurrence after surgery was explored. Results: The proportion of CD15+LOX-1+ PMN-MDSCs increased in PB of NSCLC patients. CD15+LOX-1+ PMN-MDSC proportion was positively correlated with levels of CEA and CYFRA21-1. The area under the ROC curve (AUC) of PMN-MDSC percentage was higher than CYFRA21-1, CEA and CA125. The proportion of CD15+LOX-1+ PMN-MDSCs decreased in patients after surgery. The frequency of CD15+LOX-1+ PMN-MDSCs was lower in NSCLC patients without recurrence compared to those with recurrence after surgery. Conclusions: Circulating CD15+LOX-1+ PMN-MDSCs are a potential diagnostic marker for NSCLC, and are associated with NSCLC prognosis and recurrence after surgery.

Oktay Ucer

and 4 more

Objectives The aim of the present study was to investigate the effect of treatment on IL-1, IL-6, IL-8 and neopterin levels in patients with non-muscle invasive bladder cancer (NMIBC). Methods Thirty patients with NMIBC and 30 age-matched controls were included in the study. Preoperative, postoperative first control (at two weeks after second transurethral resection of bladder tumor (TURBT)) and second control (at the end of intravesical immunotherapy) blood samples were analyzed by ELISA to determine IL-1, IL-6, IL-8 and neopterin levels. The mean cytokine levels of the patients were statistically compared as well as comparing the patients’ and controls’ levels. Results There were no statistically significant differences between the mean IL-1, IL-6, IL-8 and neopterin levels of the patient and control group before initial TURBT. In the patient group, there were no statistically significant differences in the IL-6 and IL-8 levels after both TURBT and intravesical BCG therapy. The mean of preoperative IL-1 and neopterin levels significantly decrease after TURBT (p<0.05=). However this reduction do not continue after intravesical BCG instillations. Conclusions The finding of this study showed that the IL-1, IL-6, IL-8 and neopterin levels of the patients with NMIBC were similar to the levels of healthy controls. The IL-1 and neopterin levels significantly decreased after TURBT. But this reductions did not continue after intravesical BCG instillation. These findings demonstrate that IL-1 and neopterin levels decrease after TURBT due to the reduction of tumor weight or tumor removal.

Yeliz Bahar-Ozdemir

and 1 more

Aim Extracorporeal shockwave therapy (ESWT) is known as one of the most effective treatment methods in plantar fasciitis (PF). Low-dye taping, which is the most preferred method of banding treatments, provides an analgesic effect by correcting biomechanics. It was aimed to compare the efficacy of adjuvant low-dye kinesio-taping (KT), sham-taping, or extracorporeal shockwave therapy (ESWT) alone in plantar fasciitis (PF). Methods In this double-blind, sham-controlled study, forty-five patients with PF were randomized to 3-group (Group 1: ESWT plus low-dye KT, n=15; Group 2: ESWT plus Sham-taping, n=15; and Group 3: ESWT only, n=15) five-session ESWT were administrated. KT was performed and changed every 1-week for the ESWT sessions in Groups 1 and 2. The main outcome measures were the visual analog scale (VAS) change, the heel tenderness index (HTI), foot function index (FFI). The patients were evaluated at the beginning and end of the treatment and the 4-week follow-up. Results The demographic characteristics and baseline outcomes between groups were similar (p>0.05). VAS and HTI changes were observed in all three groups, there was no difference between groups. Repeated-measures ANOVA showed a significant interaction between the time and the groups in FFI-total (F3.919= 2.607; p=.043). At the 4-week follow-up, when Groups 1 and 2 were evaluated, the lower FFI-total, FFI-disability, and FFI-activity limitation were statistically significant in Group 1 (p=0.027; p=0.026; p=0.029, respectively). When Group 1 and 3 were compared, the decrease in FFI-pain and FFI-activity limitation were significant in Group 1 (p=0.042; p=0.035, respectively). Conclusions Low-dye KT, in addition to ESWT, is more effective than sham-taping and ESWT in pain relief and foot function improvement due to PF at a 4-week follow-up.

Murat Eren

and 3 more

Background/Aim: There is insufficient data on physiological and psychological alterations that may occur among health-care workers wearing various face masks during novel coronavirus-2019 (COVID-19) pandemic. In this study, we aimed to investigate the physiological effects of various types of face masking and associated discomfort among health-care workers. Methods: This prospective study included 33 healthy health-care workers. Each participant was asked to wear a single surgical mask, double mask, N95 type mask, and surgical mask on N95 type mask for an uninterrupted period of 2 hours. Oxygen saturation, heart pulse, blood pressure, respiratory rate, and step counts were recorded at baseline and every 30 min of 2 hours with a total of five times for each mask type. Self-assessment of fatigue, exhaustion, and headache were also graded. Intra- and inter-group analyses were performed. Results: There was no significant difference in the oxygen saturation, pulse and respiratory rates among the participants including intra- and inter-groups (p>0.05) Although no significant difference was seen in diastolic blood pressure, systolic blood pressures gradually and significantly increased with a double surgical mask (p<0.05). Headache and exhaustion scores increased gradually and significantly over time at every measurement time-point with every mask type (p<0.05) Fatigue scores also increased in intra-group comparison of mask types without any difference in-between. Conclusion: Our study results show that, during 2 hours of period, face mask types affect only subjective parameters such as headache, exhaustion, and fatigue without any change in the objective parameters such as oxygen saturation, and pulse and respiratory rates among health-care workers.

Oktay Ozman

and 7 more

Introduction: This study aims to investigate the outcomes and complication rates of patients undergoing retrograde intrarenal surgery (RIRS) at the live surgery events organized as boutique course series. Materials and Methods: Eight RIRS courses were organized between November 2017 and February 2020. Data of 24 patients who were operated in the live surgery events (as LSE group) for renal stone were matched with the data of 24 substitute patients (as control group) who underwent regular RIRS on the same period at the same centers.. Results: Stone free status of groups was similar (88% in LSE and 79% in the control group; p=1). There was no significant difference in terms of complication and need for additional procedure rates, operation and fluoroscopy and hospitality times between the two groups (p=1, p=1, p=0.12, p=0.58 and p=0.94, respectively). Fifty-four % (13/24) of LSE operations were performed by guest surgeons. No statistically significant difference was found between the patients who operated by host and guest surgeons. However, the operation times of the operations performed by guest surgeons were longer than those performed by the host surgeons (96.5±28 and 66.5±30 minute, respectively, p=0.07). Conclusion: Our study is the first report on this area. RIRS live surgery can be performed with low complication and high stone-free rates without jeopardizing patient safety. If the surgeon is not familiar with the operating room set-up or staffs, the live surgery must performed by the host surgeon to avoid extended operating time.
Purpose: To investigate the prediction values of the preoperative NLR, LMR, PLR, MPV, RDW for recurrence and progression of patients with non-muscle invasive bladder cancer (NMIBC). Methods: In this prospective study, 94 consecutive patients, newly diagnosed with NMIBC between July 2017 - August 2018 were included. The blood samples were collected from patients before transurethral resection of bladder tumor (TURB) and NLR, LMR, PLR, RDW, MPV values were calculated. The effect of these preoperative inflammatory parameters and other clinicopathological parameters on recurrence and progression rates were evaluated. Kaplan-Meier and multivariate Cox regression analyses were performed to identify significant prognostic variables. Results: The mean follow-up was 11 ± 6.4 months. Recurrence was observed in 35.1% and progression was detected in 7.4% of the patients. Neutrophil-lymphocyte ratio was statistically significantly associated with both recurrence (p = 0.01) and progression (p = 0.035) whereas lymphocyte-monocyte ratio was only associated with recurrence (p = 0.038). In the survival analyses, the relationship between recurrence and LMR was confirmed in both univariate (p = 0.021) and multivariate (p = 0.022) analyses. The relationship between NLR and recurrence was confirmed in univariate analysis (p = 0.019), however in multivariate analysis was found to be statistically insignificant (p = 0.051). Conclusions: Lymphocyte-monocyte ratio might be an easy obtainable, non-invasive and cost-effective method for predicting recurrence of disease in patients with non-muscle invasive bladder cancer.

Kyubeom Kim

and 6 more

Objectives: In this study, we designed a new technique for open septal reduction using a polydioxanone (PDS) plate and compared it with closed reduction. Design, Setting, Participants: This study included nineteen consecutive patients with nasoseptal fracture: ten receiving open reduction with a PDS plate (PDS group) and nine undergoing closed reduction (CR group). Open septal reduction was performed after closed reduction for nasal bone fracture. A mucoperichondrial flap was unilaterally elevated, and the deviated septal cartilage was reduced. The PDS plate was inserted horizontally above the vomerine suture. Surgical outcome was analyzed with three-dimensional volumetry and with a quality-of-life scale for nasal obstruction (NOSE scale). Results: Complications included one case of septal perforation in the CR group and one case of PDS exposure and septal hematoma in the PDS group. In the 3D volumetric analysis of the PDS group, the median value of the nasal cavity change significantly differed between 1.14 mL (interquartile range; 0.46 to 2.4) at the preoperative CT scan and 0.33 mL (interquartile range; -0.22 to 1.29) at the postoperative CT scan (**p = 0.0039). The NOSE scale revealed significant improvement in nasal obstruction postsurgically (median value, 42.5 to 7.5; *p = 0.0139) in the PDS group. Conclusion: PDS plates potentially present a new concept of open septal reduction in terms of septal reinforcement compared with the subtractive approach of open septal reduction.

Sinan Eroğlu

and 4 more

Objective: Novel Coronavirus disease is a new infectious agent of the respiratory tract characterized by a severe acute respiratory syndrome. For this disease, there are limited data with regard to the clinical characteristics of the patients and prognostic factors. Study Design: Retrospective Cohort Setting: Secondary Referral Center Methods: We collected data from 213 patients who were hospitalized into COVID-19 isolation with positive PCR test results. We recorded various patient values, including blood test results. We also noted age, gender, additional diseases, duration of discharge, whether they live or die, whether they smoke, and their radiological staging. Results: In CT imaging with a staging of maximum 4 points and minimum 0 points, the mean value resulted in 1.95. The average radiological stage of the dead patients group was reported as 2.56. There was a correlation between the radiological predictor and the outcome status (p-value: 0.002). The number of smokers was 14 (6.5%). Of the 26 patients who died, 3 were smokers and 23 were non-smokers. Conclusion: 14 of the patients in the study were smokers (6.5%). One in four people in Turkey is a smoker, while in COVID-19 isolation service only a 6.5% rate of smoking was observed. That supports the theory that smoking hasn’t negative impact on COVID-19 development. The average radiological stage was reported as 2.56 in the dead patients’s group. There was a correlation between the radiological predictor and the outcome status (p-value: 0.002). It seems that an elevated radiological stage is a predictor of death. Keywords: Covid-19, SARS-CoV-2, smoking, computed tomography, predictor factors. Key points: to learn relations between smoking and covid-19, effect of Ct stages on the disease severity, effect of blood analysis on Covid-19, the parameters in deaths of Covid-19, ratio of smoking in Covid-19 inpatients

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Oktay Ucer

and 3 more

The sinoatrial node in medication-resistant inappropriate sinus tachycardia: to modify or to ablate?Khalil El Gharib1*1Hôtel-Dieu de France, Beirut, Lebanon*Author for correspondence: khalil.gharib@outlook.comKEYWORDS: IST, sinus node modification, sinus node ablation, radiofrequency ablation, surgical ablationNo conflict of interest to discloseFunding: noneInappropriate sinus tachycardia (IST) is defined as a resting heart rate >100 beats per minute (with a mean heart rate >90 beats per minute over 24 hours) associated with highly symptomatic palpitations(1). The syndrome is associated neither with structural heart disease nor with any secondary cause of sinus tachycardia(2) and evidence suggests that enhanced intrinsic automaticity of the sinoatrial node, which can be due to anti-β-adrenergic antibodies, is behind its genesis(3). However, it is benign in terms of clinical outcomes and echocardiographic evidence of ventricular dysfunction(4), being rarely associated with tachycardia-induced cardiomyopathy(3).Patients with IST are essentially treated with ß-blockers to alleviate their symptoms(5). Ivabradine, a drug that inhibits funny calcium channels, particularly abundant in the SA node, showed modest benefit, receiving class IIa recommen­dation in the treatment of IST(4). But, the duration of medical therapy might be indefinite, and, a considerable number of patients would respond inadequately, or have no response, even after prolonged therapy(5). Historically, such patients would have subtotal right atrial excision, atrioventricular junctional ablation with permanent pacemaker implantation, or chemical occlusion of the sinus node artery(6). These options are considered today unacceptable in this setting, and other therapeutic approaches should be unveiled when resistance to medical treatment appears.Electrophysiological study was initially purely diagnostic, but recent advances in technology have allowed us to intervene(7); patients with ventricular and supraventricular tachyarrhythmias are successfully treated with percutaneous catheter procedures. Of these, SA node ablation/ modification has been proposed as alternative approaches in IST that is not responding to medical treatment; trials reported auspicious results, highlighted here.Electrophysiologic mapping to the site of the earliest endocardial activation during either spontaneous sinus tachycardia or isoproterenol-induced sinus tachycardia has rendered these procedures feasible(8). Additionally, combination with intracardiac echocardiography permitted a more accurate electrophysiologic and anatomic localization of the sinoatrial node(9).Sinus node modification is not a focal ablation, but requires complete abolition of the cranial portion of the SA node complex, the one that exhibits the most of the autonomic activity(9). It is defined as successful when the heart rate decreases by 30 beats per minute (bpm) during isoproterenol infusion(8). Short-term success was also defined by other investigators when there was a reduction of the baseline sinus rate to less than 90 bpm and the sinus rate during isoproterenol infusion by more than 20% or by 25%(8). The acute success rate for modification has been varying between 76 and 100 % across trials, while long-term clinical outcomes are modest at best, with reported freedom from IST ranging from 23 to 85%(10).Complications specific to SA node modification include superior vena cava (SVC) syndrome, diaphragmatic paralysis, and sinus node dysfunction(10). And while modification with conventional methods has its setbacks, modification using laser energy can be considered in the setting of IST. This modality creates clear-cut homogenous transmural lesions of the myocardium that comprises the scattered “functional” SA node(11). The burnt myocardium will then heal into a dense fibrous scar, decreasing potential amplitudes. And when adapting laser energy settings to the thickness of the myocardial wall, collateral dam­ages such as esophageal fistulae, lung burns, and phrenic nerve palsy will be avoided(11); thus, this technique may prove itself as a new intriguing alternative for the safe and effective treatment of IST.SA node modification is apt in achieving acute reductions in postprocedural heart rate. However, and as aforementioned, success rates are suboptimal in terms of symptomatic control with a significant recurrence rate(12). Catheter ablation aiming at either total exclusion and obliteration of the SA node has been described and performed, success being defined as a slowing of >50% from the baseline rate of tachycardia along with a junctional escape rhythm(12). With radiofrequency (RF) applications, the earliest local atrial activation time would shift from a cranial location to a more caudal one, usually at the mid-lateral right atrium(5). Reviews have reported that acute success rates were consistently to be as high as 88.9%, with an overall frequency of recurrence of 19.6%, the latter occurring within a wide range of post-ablation intervals, anywhere from a few weeks to several months after the procedure(12). Additionally, Takemoto and colleagues documented a significant drop in B-type natriuretic peptide levels, 6 to 12 months after ablation, suggesting fewer stretching shears on cardiac muscle.Two types of response of the sinus tachycardia to RFA were observed across studies, whether a step-wise reduction in sinus rate accompanying migration of the site of earliest atrial activation in a cranial-caudal direction along the lateral right atrial wall, or an abrupt drop in heart rate in response to RFA at a focal site of earliest atrial activation(13).However, RFA of inappropriate sinus tachycardia requires a large number of applications of radiofrequency energy and is, as in SA node modification, associated with a high recurrence rate(13). Complete remission is achieved only in approximately 50% of patients in some studies(14); longer history of IST and those reporting near syncope/syncope having a higher probability of recurrence(15).While other studies have shown that RF ablation of the SA node can achieve even longer-term reductions in the sinus rate and relief of symptoms in two-thirds of patients with drug-refractory, inappropriate sinus tachycardia(13), aiming specific sites related to the SA node should be elaborated, for better and optimal outcomes Killu and colleagues created a lesion in the arcuate ridge resulting in complete abolition of the tachycardia, since arrhythmias arising in this region may exhibit both electrocardiographic and clinical similarities to IST(16). This has led to consider ablation of the arcuate ridge as a treatment of refractory IST, necessitating larger trials to confirm its potential role.Phrenic nerve injury is a severe and dreaded complication of SN ablation(12). Pericarditis, right diaphragmatic paralysis, and SVC syndrome are other undesirable side effects of the procedures, variously reported in studies. but a common complication was observed in them all, atrial tachyarrhythmias(12). It has been hypothesized that myocardial pathology, such as inflammation and fibrosis, considered iatrogenic due to the ablation procedures, may be promoting arrhythmias both in the region of the SA node, as well as in remote locations(12). Through multivariable analysis, higher resting heart rates post-ablation and smaller cranial-to-caudal shifts have been defined as predictors of atrial arrhythmias(15). In conclusion, catheter ablation could be considered an effective treatment for highly symptomatic, drug-refractory patients, even for those who did not respond to SA node modification(5).The sinus node is located close to the epicardial surface and catheter-based ablations do not always make full-thickness lesions across the atrial muscle, leading to failure of the ablation(17), besides the numerous trabeculae and the widely variable anatomy.Surgical ablation is not a first-line or routine management strategy for IST, but it has been proposed when IST resists or recurs after SN modification/ endocardial ablation(17). Effectively, in several studies, epicardial lesions, through a single small incision in one of the intercostal spaces, successfully slowed heart rate and shifted activation to a more caudal location, and surprisingly, subsequent endocardial lesions led to an even greater drop in heart rate and more caudal site of earliest activation(18). These outcomes were again replicated when using minimally invasive thoracoscopic ablation of the epicardial site of the SA node, concluding of the promising efficacy and the safety of this approach, since it preserves the phrenic nerve(17), although continued follow-up after surgery is required.Medication-resistant IST remains a medical challenge for physicians and cardiologists; and in the era of great advances in interventional cardiology, its treatment remains debatable. Sinus node modification/ ablation is not recommended as first-line therapy in IST, this procedure should be considered only in drug-refractory patients who have severe symptoms(13). Although the number of patients in the available studies is generally small, both procedures have documented an encouraging success rate in the short-term, while being less impressive in the long-term. It has been hypothesized that this discrepancy is due to the relatively large potential area of atrial pacemaker cells(18); modification or ablation may fail to ablate or isolate all the pathways that comprise the functional SA node because they often target the anatomic part and the area of earliest atrial activation(19). Others have explained that the long-term slowing in rhythm fails because these procedures inconsistently produce transmural lesions in the right atrium. Surgical treatment of IST has proposed a solution to the latter conflict when isolating the SA node with a wide cuff of surrounding atrial muscle(19). And with the advent of bipolar RF clamps and minimally invasive cardiac surgical techniques with thoracoscopic guidance, this approach appears more appealing than before, especially when combined with endocardial ablation(19). But again, current data specifies employing these techniques in highly selected cases.

Jerome FERRARA

and 10 more

Background: There is insufficient evidence regarding the comparison of Rapid Deployment aortic valve replacement(RDAVR) to TAVR in intermediate-risk patients with severe symptomatic aortic stenosis(AS) Aims: We compare the 2-years outcomes between RDAVR with INTUITY and TAVR with SAPIEN 3 in intermediate-risk patients with AS. Methods: Inclusion criteria: severe AS implanted with RDAVR or TAVR; EUROSCORE II ≥ 4% and clinical evaluation by Heart Team. Regression adjustment for the propensity score was used to compare RDAVR with TAVR(1:1). Primary endpoint: composite criterion of death, disabling stroke or rehospitalization. Secondary endpoints: occurrence of major bleeding post-operative complications, paravalvular regurgitation (PVR)≥2 and patient-prosthesis mismatch(PPM) at 1 month and pacemaker implantation at 2 years. Results: A total of 152 patients were included from 2012 to 2018: 48 in the RDAVR group and 104 in the TAVR group. Mean age was 82.7±6, 51.3% were female, mean Euroscore II was 6.03±1.6% and mean baseline LVEF was 56±13%,mean indexed iEOA was 0.41±0.1cm/m2, mean gradient was 51.7±14.7mmHg. Patients with RDAVR were younger(79.5±6vs82.6±6,p=0.01), at higher risk (EUROSCORE2 6,61±1,8%vs5,63±1,5%, p=0.005), combined surgery was performed in 28 patients(58.3%). Twenty-two patients(45.99%) met the primary outcome in the RDAVR group and 32 patients(66.67%) in the TAVR group. By 1:1propensity score matching analysis, there was a significant difference between both groups in favor of RDAVR(HR=0.58[95%CI:0.34;1.00],p=0.04). No difference were observed in PPM occurrence(0.83;[0.35-1.94];p=0.67),major bleeding events(1.33;[0.47-3.93];p=0.59),PVR≥2(0.33[0-6.28],p=0.46), and pacemaker implantation (0.84[0.25-2.84],p=0.77).Conclusion: RDAVR is associated with better 2-years outcomes than TAVR in intermediate-risk patients with severe symptomatic AS.

Francesca Mori

and 10 more

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