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A H M Delwar

and 3 more

Objective: To find out the prevalence, etiology, risk factor, presentation and treatment option of the dysphonic people, facilitate the prevention of the risk factor of it. Study Design: Cohort retrospective study. Setting: Academic tertiary care medical center. Subjects and Methods: A total 1739 dysphonic patient’s demographic data collected and analysed who attended in the department of Otolaryngology and Head-Neck Surgery, Comilla Medical College, and Comilla Medical Centre, Bangladesh. Results: Incidence of dysphonic patient was 1.16%, and yearly prevalence 33.33%. Out of 1739, the male was 1006 (57.85%), and the female was 733 (42.15%), 50-59 years were highest presentation 488 (28.06%). Among 1739, non-specific chronic laryngitis was 1015 (58.37%), dysphonia without structural change (MTD) 417 (23.98%), and malignancy 90 (5.17%). Off them, smoker was 911 (52.39%), voice abuser 469 (26.97%), industrial worker was 477 (27.43%), teacher 359 (20.64%), singer 151 (8.68%), and slum dweller was 528 (30.36%). Presenting feature revealed hoarse voice, reduced loudness, and tiring to talk above 90%. All patients assessed by rigid Hopkin’s telescope. Non-neoplastic benign and suspected malignant lesion was 1503 (86.43), neoplastic benign and malignancy was 236 (13.57%), conservatively treated 1512 (86.43%), and surgically 227 (13.6%) treated by micro-laryngeal surgery. Conclusion: Dysphonia effect more than 33% of people at some point of life. It definitely influences the quality of life and losing the patient health and wealth. Early and effective treatment decreases the further loss.

Yuan Zhao

and 4 more

Background: Maternal IgG antibodies can pass through the placental barrier to the fetal circulation, and may sensitize fetal red cells when there is maternal-fetal blood type incompatibility. The pathogenesis of breast milk jaundice is not yet clear. Few studies have focused on hemolytic disease of the newborn (HDN) associated with passively-acquired maternal antibodies from breast milk, for which individual cases were occasionally reported in recent years. Case Report: Five newborns were found to develop jaundice 19 hours to 4 days after birth. These affected neonates were enrolled in a study to test free antibodies in plasma and antibodies bound to the surface of red blood cells, as well as antibodies in their mothers’ blood and breast milk. The data were analyzed in combination with the mothers’ antibody monitoring records during pregnancy. Methods: 3 mL of EDTA-anticoagulated venous blood was collected from each affected neonate and 5 mL from his/her mother to separate plasma. The plasma was incubated with panel cells in normal saline in test tubes at 37 °C for 45 min, and then added to anti-human globulin micro-column gel cards and centrifuged to observe the results. 100–200 mL of the whey separated from breast milk was used in a two-stage papain technique: 50 μL of panel cells was incubated with 50 μL of 1% papain at 37 °C for 10 min, then washed once with normal saline and prepared to a 3–5% cell suspension; the cell suspension was incubated with 200–300 μL of whey at 37 °C for 30 min, then washed 3 times with normal saline and prepared to a 0.8–1% cell suspension. 50 μL of the resultant suspension was added to anti-human globulin micro-column gel cards and centrifuged to observe the results. In addition, an antibody elution test was conducted on the red blood cells of the affected neonates. Results: The antibodies in the red blood cell eluate of the affected neonates were consistent with those in the maternal blood and breast milk. The antibodies acquired in case 1 can immediately be considered irrelevant to the placental route. Conclusion: Anti-erythrocyte IgG antibodies may result from breast milk and cause red blood cell sensitization in newborns. For children with severe HDN, restrictions on breastfeeding should be considered to prevent continuous antibody acquisition.

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