Taking hydrophilic and water-repellent soils from the Guishui River Basin as the research object, one-dimensional infiltration experiments were conducted to study the effects of soil water repellency on cumulative infiltration (CI) and the infiltration rate (IR). The test results show that, for the hydrophilic soil (HS) sample, the CI increases monotonously with time and the IR decreases monotonously. For the water-repellent soil (W-RS), however, the following characteristics were observed: (1) There is an inflection point in the CI and a sudden increase in IR. Larger values of the initial soil water content produce an earlier and more significant inflection point in CI, and a larger peak value of IR. (2) The post-peak stable IR is greater than that the pre-peak value, ignoring the beginning of rapid infiltration, and the overall IR presents a single peak. The applicability of various water infiltration models was analyzed for the two soil types. Numerical analysis suggests the following conclusions: (1) For both HS and W-RS, the Kostiakov function, Gamma function, and Beta function (BF) models exhibit good applicability. (2) For W-RS, the Gauss function model not only reflects the monotonous decrease in IR, but also produces a steady IR in the initial stage, a gradual increase before the peak value, and a gradual decrease after the peak value. Similarly, the BF model reflects the monotonous decrease in IR. A piecewise BF can also reflect the U-shaped change in rapid infiltration before the inflection point, as well as the gradual increase and right-skewed distribution curve of W-RS infiltration before and after the inflection point. The BF model achieves the best simulation accuracy and has the widest applicability.
Background: Pulmonary sarcoidosis is characterized by an exaggerated CD4+ T-cell response and formation of non-necrotizing granulomas. Tumour necrosis factor α (TNF-α) is regarded as crucial for granuloma formation and TNF-α inhibitors offer a 3rd line treatment option for patients not responding to conventional treatment. However, not all patients benefit from treatment, and an optimal dose and treatment duration have not been established. Insight into the influence of TNF-α inhibitors on lung immune cells may provide clues to what drives inflammation in sarcoidosis and improve our understanding of treatment outcomes. Objectives: To evaluate effects of treatment with the TNF- α inhibitor infliximab on lung immune cells and clinical features of the patients. Methods: Thirteen patients with sarcoidosis refractory to conventional treatment were assessed with bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL), spirometry and CT scan in close adjacent to start of infliximab treatment. These investigations were repeated after six months of treatment. Results: Treatment with TNF- α inhibitor infliximab was well tolerated with no adverse events, except for one patient who developed a probable adverse event with liver toxicity. Ten patients were classified as responders, having a reduced CD4/CD8 ratio, a decreased percentage of CD4+ T-cells expressing the activation marker CD69 and number of mast cells (p<0.05 for all). The percentage of T regulatory cells (Tregs), defined as FoxP3+ CD4+ T-cells decreased in most patients. Conclusions: Six months of infliximab treatment in patients with sarcoidosis led to signs of decreased CD4+ T-cell alveolitis and decreased mastocytosis in the lungs of responders.
The field of molecular magnetism has benefited from the fluid synergy between experimentalists and theoreticians for decades This has led to fundamental understanding of the processes that govern Single Molecule Magnets, allowing for the establishment of clear design criteria to control properties and the development of new synthetic methodologies, sophisticated magnetic measurements and innovative computational techniques. Herein we give an overview on the experimental and theoretical collaborative work we carried out as part of the synthesis group led by David Mills and the computational/theoretical team led by Nicholas Chilton at the University of Manchester. Together with this, we provide a perspective on collaborative work in molecular magnetism and how such collaborations are essential for advancing the field further.
Particle-laden flows in a vertical channel were simulated using an Eulerian–Eulerian, Anisotropic-Gaussian (EE-AG) model. Two sets of cases varying the overall mass loading were done using particle sizes corresponding to either a large or small Stokes number. Primary and turbulent statistics were extracted from these results and compared with counterparts collected from Eulerian–Lagrangian (EL) simulations. The statistics collected from the small Stokes number particle cases correspond well between the two models, with the EE-AG model replicating the transition observed using the EL model from shear-induced turbulence to relaminarization to cluster-induced turbulence as the mass loading increased. The EE-AG model was able to capture the behavior of the EL simulations only at the largest particle concentrations using the large Stokes particles. This is due to the limitations involved with employing a particle-phase Eulerian model (as opposed to a Lagrangian representation) for a spatially intermittent system that has a low particle number concentration.
We establish nonexistence of nontrivial solutions (including sign-changing ones) for some partial differential inequalities of elliptic and parabolic type containing nonlinear terms that depend on the positive and negative part of the sought function in different ways. Systems of elliptic inequalities with similar structure are also considered. The proofs are based on the test function method.
Nanofluid as a special thermal transporting medium has recently received unprecedented attention due to its improved heat transfer performance compared to conventional fluids. Numerous researches have been conducted on the natural convection characteristics of different nanofluids in various configurations of cavities due to the important applications of natural convection in environmental, petrochemical, medical, aviation and space technology, industrial and many more areas. The emergence of a magnetic field as a tool for the manipulation of convective flow and heat transfer behaviours of nanofluids in non-square enclosures has been extensively reviewed. The influence of several variables such as controlling parameters, heat distribution methods, thermal and concentration boundary conditions, magnetic field types, numerical methods, correlation types, nanofluid types, heaters types, numbers and length, and slip conditions, etc., on the magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) natural convection flow and heat transfer behaviours of nanofluid in non-square cavities has been given great attention and brought to the spotlight for discussion. The concepts of bioconvection, micro-polar nanofluid, bio-nanofluid (green nanofluid), ionic nanofluid, and hybrid nanofluid have also been discussed for the first time in relation to natural convection. Special cases of MHD natural convection in non-square cavities involving hybrid nanofluids and micro-polar nanofluids are also presented herein. The application of several numerical methods (which is the major approach studied so far) to investigate the hydromagnetic behaviours of nanofluids in non-square cavities is the focus of this work.
In this study, the viscosity of MgO-Water nanofluid in a different volume fraction of nanoparticles, temperatures, and shear rates has been predicted by Artificial Neural Networks (ANNs) and surface methods. In the ANN method, an algorithm is proposed to select the best neuron number for the hidden layer. In the fitting method, a surface is proposed for each volume fraction of nanoparticles, and finally, the results of ANN and surface fitting method have been compared. It can be observed that, increasing the volume fraction from 0.07% to 1.25% at temperatures of 25, 30, 40, 50, and 60 °C resulted in about two-fold increase in viscosity. Also, the best network has 24 neurons in the hidden layer. It can be seen that for a network with 24 neurons in the hidden layer has the best overall correlation, and this coefficient is 0.999035. The mean absolute value of errors in ANN and fitting method are 0.0118 and 0.0206, respectively.
We introduce a straightforward method for the preparation of novel starch-based ultramicroporous carbons (SCs) that demonstrate high CH4 uptake and excellent CH4/N2 selectivity. These SCs are derived from a combination of starch and 1-6 wt. % of acrylic acid, and the resulting materials are amenable to surface cation exchangeability as demonstrated by the formation of highly dispersed K+ in carbon precursors. Following activation, these SCs contain ultramicropores with narrow pore-size distributions of <0.7 nm, leading to porous carbon-rich materials that exhibit CH4 uptake values as high as 1.86 mmol/g at 100 kPa and 298 K, the highest uptake value for CH4 to date, with the IAST-predicted CH4/N2 selectivity up to 5.7. Both the potential mechanism for the formation of narrow pores and the origin of the favorable CH4 adsorption properties are discussed and examined. This work may potentially guide future designs for carbon-rich materials with excellent gas adsorption properties.
Bubble formation from a downward-pointing capillary nozzle was investigated in this study. The experiments were conducted at gas flow rate of 40-5400 mL/h and inner nozzle radius of 0.030-0.255 mm. Experimental results show that microbubbles were formed continuously at moderate Weber number, which was not reported in pervious investigations with injecting gas through an upward-pointing capillary nozzle. High-speed visualization indicates that the formation of microbubbles arises from the convergence of the capillary waves induced by the partial coalescence of larger bubbles. A bubbling regime map is given to identify the critical conditions for the formation of microbubbles. In the present air-water experiments, the generated microbubbles are 20-170 μm in diameter. From experimental data, a scaling law for microbubble size is proposed as a function of Weber and Bond numbers.
On the example of forty ion pairs, the study demonstrates how the core-level binding energy values can be calculated and used to plot theoretical spectra at a low computational cost using density functional theory methods. Three approaches for obtaining the binding energy values are based on delta Kohn–Sham (ΔKS) calculations, 1s Kohn–Sham orbital energies, and atomic charges. The ΔKS results show a good agreement between the available experimental X-ray photoelectron data. 1s Kohn–Sham orbital energies and atomic charges also correlate with the ΔKS results.
Pathogen persistence in host communities is influenced by a hierarchy of heterogeneities from individual host to landscape-level attributes, but isolating the relative contributions of these heterogeneities is challenging. We developed theory to partition the influence of host species, habitat patches, and landscape connectivity on pathogen persistence within host-pathogen metacommunities. We used the framework to quantify the contributions of host species composition and habitat patch identity on the persistence of an amphibian pathogen across the landscape. By sampling over 11,000 hosts of six amphibian species, we found that a single host species could maintain the pathogen in 91% of the metacommunities we observed. Moreover, this dominant maintenance species contributed, on average, twice as much to landscape-level pathogen persistence compared to the most influential source patch in a metacommunity. Our analysis demonstrates substantial inequality in how species and patches contribute to pathogen persistence, with important implications for targeted disease management.
Phenotypic plasticity can allow animals to adapt their behaviour, such as their mating effort, to their social and sexual environment. However, this relies on the individual receiving accurate and reliable cues of the environmental conditions. This can be achieved via the receipt of multi-component cues, which may provide redundancy and robustness. Male Drosophila melanogaster detect presence of rivals via combinations of any two or more redundant cue components (sound, smell and touch) and respond by extending their subsequent mating duration, which is associated with higher reproductive success. Although alternative combinations of cues of rival presence have previously been found to elicit equivalent increases in mating duration and offspring production, their redundancy in securing success under sperm competition has not previously been tested. Here, we explicitly test this by exposing male D. melanogaster to alternative combinations of rival cues and examining reproductive success in both the presence and absence of sperm competition. The results supported previous findings of redundancy of cues in terms of behavioural responses. However, there was no evidence of reproductive benefits accrued by extending mating duration in response to rivals. The lack of identifiable fitness benefits of longer mating under these conditions, both in the presence and absence of sperm competition, contrasted with some previous results, but could be explained by: 1) damage sustained from aggressive interactions with rivals leading to reduced ability to increase ejaculate investment, 2) presence of features of the social environment, such as male and female mating status, that obscured the fitness benefits of longer mating, 3) decoupling of behavioural investment with fitness benefits.
Numerous socio-economic activities depend on the seasonal rainfall and groundwater recharge cycle across the Central American Isthmus. Population growth and unregulated land use changes resulted in extensive surface water pollution and a large dependency on groundwater resources. This work combines stable isotope variations in rainfall, surface water, and groundwater of Costa Rica, Nicaragua, El Salvador, and Honduras to develop a regionalized rainfall isoscape, isotopic lapse rates, spatial-temporal isotopic variations, and air mass back trajectories determining potential mean recharge elevations, moisture circulation patterns, and surface water-groundwater interactions. Intra-seasonal rainfall modes resulted in two isotopically depleted incursions (W-shaped isotopic pattern) during the wet season and two enriched pulses during the Mid-Summer Drought and the months of the strongest trade winds. Notable isotopic sub-cloud fractionation and near-surface secondary evaporation were identified as common denominators within the Central American Dry Corridor. Groundwater and surface water isotope ratios depicted the strong orographic separation into the Caribbean and Pacific domains, mainly induced by the governing moisture transport from the Caribbean Sea, complex rainfall producing systems across the N-S mountain range, and the subsequent mixing with local evapotranspiration, and, to a lesser degree, the eastern Pacific Ocean fluxes. Groundwater recharge was characterized by a) depleted recharge in highland areas (72.3%), b) rapid recharge via preferential flow paths (13.1%), and enriched recharge due to near-surface secondary fractionation (14.6%). Median recharge elevation ranged from 1,104 to 1,979 m asl. These results are intended to enhance forest conservation practices, inform water protection regulations, and facilitate water security and sustainability planning in the Central American Isthmus.
Since news of COVID-19 outbreak hit the mainstream media, I have received several calls from acquaintances about if and how they should be worried. I suspect many readers of the Journal of Evaluation in Clinical Practice have experienced the same. What makes communicating the risk difficult can be illustrated through a recent assignment I gave to my undergraduate class focused on how we use science in public policy. I asked the students to identify claims in the media regarding the virus and then search the literature to assess the level of support for such claims. Suffice it to say, they found several claims unsupported, and several others to be inconclusive. Not very good grounding for providing definitive (or even satisfying) advice.
In this paper, the Shannon entropy and Fisher information are studied for the screened Kratzer potential model (SKP). We calculated the position and momentum entropies for the screened Kratzer potential for its ground states as well as the first excited state. Our result shows that the sum of the position and momentum entropies satisfies the lower bound Berkner, Bialynicki–Birula and Mycieslki (BBM) inequality. Also, our results showed that decreasing Shannon entropy in the position space was complemented with an increasing Shannon entropy in the momentum space. Similarly, we evaluated for Fisher information and show that the Stam, Cramer-Rao inequalities are satisfied. The squeezing phenomena were also observed for certain values of the screening parameter α.