Coronavirus Disease 19 (COVID-19) is caused by severe acute respiratory coronavirus-2 and has resulted in an unprecedented global pandemic. The adaptations of pregnancy often predispose pregnant women to a more severe course of respiratory illness with the potential for maternal and perinatal morbidity. Thus, national and international guidelines are rapidly being developed to help maintain optimal care throughout pregnancy. Due to the novelty of COVID-19 and limitations of existing data, heterogeneity exists between these guidelines. We aim to review the available evidence for the management of pregnant women with COVID-19 and summarise the recommendations set out by three main institutions.
Objective: To study the effect of COVID-19 on pregnancy, neonatal outcomes; and the use of PPE amongst clinicians caring for COVID-19 patients. Design: Prospective cohort study Setting: A large tertiary maternity unit within a university hospital with an average annual >10,000 births. Population: A cohort of 23 pregnant women including singleton and multiple pregnancies tested positive for COVID-19 between February 2020 and April 2020 inclusive. Methods: Analysis of prospectively collected data to assess the effect of COVID-19 on pregnancy, neonatal outcomes; and staff use of PPE. Main outcome Measures Maternal and neonatal morbidity and mortality, and the use of PPE when interacting with COVID-19 patients Results: 23 pregnant women tested positive for COVID-19, delivering 20 babies. 16/23 (70%) were women from Asian background. Nearly fifth of the patients (4/23) developed severe respiratory complications requiring ICU support, one of which was complicated by maternal death (4.3%). (48%) of the patients had pre-existing co-morbidities, with diabetes being the most prevalent (17.4%). (36.4%) of COVID-19 pregnancies had preterm deliveries, (10.5%) respiratory distress, and pre-eclampsia. 16/23 (68%) of patients delivered by C-section. Out of the 20 new-borns, there were no cases of vertical transmission. FFP3 masks were not used by staff in (28.8%) of cases with confirmed COVID-19 infection. Conclusion: COVID-19 is associated with high prevalence of preterm birth, preeclampsia, and caesarean section compared to non-COVID pregnancies. There was no clinical evidence of vertical transmission to the new-borns. PPE use was compliant with WHO recommendations. Funding N/A Keywords COVID-19; maternal morbidity/mortality; neonatal morbidity/mortality; PPE
Four new molecules namely bis (5,6-difluoro-3-oxo-2,3-dihydro-1H-indene-2,1-diylidene) di-malononitrile (NDM-1), 3-fluorothiophen-2-yl) methylene)-5, 6-difluoro-3-oxo-2, 3-dihydro-1H-inden-1-ylidene) acetate (NDM-2), 5, 6-difluoro-3-oxo-2, 3-dihydro-1H-inden-1-ylidene)-3-methyl-2-thioxothiazolidin-4-ylidene) malononitrile (NDM-3) and bis (1-methyl-2, 6-dioxo-1, 2, 5, 6-tetrahydropyridine-3-carbonitrile) (NDM-4) containing central Naphthalene Di-Imide fragment with different end capped acceptors are designed for enhance photovoltaic properties. The absorption strength of designed molecules are between 400 and 490 nm, re-organization energy values vary from 0.0187 eV to 0.0343 eV for electron and 0.0210 eV to 0.0458 eV for hole, open circuit voltages are from 4.39 V to 4.73 V which indicates their better photovoltaic properties as compare to the R (3-methyl-4-oxo-2-thioxothiazolidin-5-ylidene) methyl).
Assessing the structural integrity of a cracked weldment is significant in engineering. When cracks are detected during welding inspection, they must fit the mechanical resistance of the structure. Generally, fracture mechanics supplies the essential tools to examine cracked structures in order to determine a fracture criterion for loading conditions. This study explores the effect of residual stress (RS) and crack orientation on determining the stress intensity factor (K_I) in mode I for a welded joint using the extended finite element method (XFEM). This research consists of two parts. The first part is a 3D thermo-mechanical finite element (FE) analysis that is established to study the temperature history and the residual stress distribution of a welded joint. The second part is a 3D FE crack model that establishes two cases of cracks, longitudinal and transverse cracks, in order to calculate K_I and J-integral values at the middle surface of a thin butt joint. K_I is calculated for cracks under applied external stress and residual stress. The results demonstrate that the effect of the welding residual stress on K_I is either beneficial or detrimental, depending on the stress distribution and sign. Moreover, the results indicate the significance of RS and crack orientation on K_I. From the simulation performed during the analysis, we show that the longitudinal crack in case (I) has higher K_I values than those in case (II) for the transverse crack. Finally, the finite element results are in good agreement with the analytical results.
Human overexploitation of natural resources has placed conservation and management as one of the most pressing challenges in modern societies, particularly regarding highly vulnerable marine ecosystems. Although a large effort has been made to design Marine Protected Areas (MPAs) worldwide, it is still unclear how many species actually exist in these MPAs, what is the genetic connectivity between areas with different protective regimes, and what is their relative genetic diversity. We answer these questions using morphologically cryptic species of the genus Mugil that are sympatric in the largest MPA in the Tropical Southwestern marine province. Population structure analyses show the existence of five highly divergent species (FST > 0.855) and no genetic divergence between two estuaries with different protection status (FST = 0.005). Sympatric individuals are assigned to single clusters and show strong concordance among hundreds of independent gene trees, consistent with full reproductive isolation and no ancestral nor ongoing hybridization. Differences of genetic diversity within species suggest that effective population sizes differ up to two-fold, probably reflecting differences in the magnitude of population expansions during the evolutionary history of these species, rather than recent impact of fisheries. Together, our results suggest that designing MPAs with areas of integral protection in between areas where fisheries are permitted could be an effective way to manage cryptic species that cannot have species-specific quotas. More generally, this work shows a cost-efficient approach that is transferable to other marine or terrestrial organisms of special concern, helping to implement science-based regulations for management and conservation.
Objectives: The clinical characteristics and outcomes of COVID-19 pneumonia in children are different with adults. We evaluated the clinic characteristics and communicable period of COVID-19 pneumonia in pediatric patients of Changsha, capital of Hunan province. Methods: This is a retrospective study. We enrolled all 12 COVID-19 pneumonia pediatric patients and 134 adult patients in the Public Healthy Medical Center of Changsha from 29th Jan. to 20th Feb. Final date of follow-up was 10th Mar. We analyzed the characteristics and communicable period communicable period of pediatric patients, compared the differences between the pediatric and adult patients. Results: Of the pediatric patients enrolled, the median age was 8.5 years old. Four (33.3%) children were asymptomatic, but one had image changes. Fever 5(41.67%) and cough 4(33.33%) were the most common symptoms at onset of illness. Leukopenia, ALT/AST, LDH, CRP and PCT elevation were significantly less than adults. Only six children (50%) showed chest CT images changes. All patients were given antiviral drugs and supportive treatment. The estimated median communicable period was 15(8–17.75) days, which was significantly longer than adult patients 10 (8-12) days (P=0.044). However, the clinic cause of adult patients was much severe than pediatric patients, including Leukopenia, CRP elevation, typical radiological changes, clinic classification, and supporting therapy. Conclusion: In summary, majority of pediatric patients have a mild clinic cause and longer communicable period than adult, so they may need a longer quarantine period likely to be a supper source of infection.
Experiments were conducted in the 2017 and 2018 growing seasons. Halisbey, NC-7, and Sultan peanut cultivars were used as the plant material. Irrigation intervals were set as two and four days, and irrigation levels were set as 50% (I50), 75% (I75), 100% (I100) and 125% (I125) of Class-A pan evaporations. Oil content, unsaturated and saturated fatty acids of peanut cultivars were determined. Experimental data were initially subjected to variance analysis, then regression analyses were conducted for irrigation intervals, and irrigation levels of the cultivars and biplot analysis was performed to assess the cultivar x irrigation interval x irrigation level interactions. For oil content, treatments were identified as the most appropriate irrigation for a two-day irrigation interval of all cultivars; I100 for four-day irrigation interval of Halisbey and Sultan cultivars and I75 for four-day irrigation interval of NC-7. Oleic, linoleic, and palmitic acids were the major fatty acids of peanuts. Cultivars exhibited different variations in these fatty acids based on irrigation intervals and irrigation levels. In all cultivar, the irrigation intervals and irrigation levels with a high oleic acid content yielded low linoleic and palmitic acid contents. According to present biplot and regression analyses, the greatest oleic acid contents were obtained from two and four-day irrigation intervals of I50 treatments in Halisbey and NC-7 cultivars and from two and four-day irrigation intervals of I75 treatments of the second year in Sultan cultivar. Present findings revealed that for quality peanut production, both irrigation intervals and irrigation levels should be taken into consideration.
In rural areas of the State of Hidalgo, Mexico, the maguey red worm or chinicuil (Comadia redtenbacheri Hamm.) and the maguey white worm (Aegiale hesperiaris Walk) are generally consumed dehydrated, while in urban areas they are eaten fried with butter. However, although their organoleptic characteristics improve, the effect on nutritional properties is unknown. Therefore, the objective of this study was to compare the proximal chemical composition and quality of fatty acids in butter-fried worms that are commercially available. In order to measure the oils quality, a chemical analysis and an instrumental analysis were performed. Lipids were predominant in dehydrated (40.11-44.67%) and fried (47.67-56.83%) samples. Moisture and temperature were the variables that increased the degradation of lipids in the samples. In the dehydrated and fried samples there were differences in the percentages of saturated and unsaturated fatty acids with 72.82-76.81% and 15.17-16.07% and 27.18-23.19% and 84.82-83.93%, respectively. Since the lipid material used to fry the worms was reused and is oxidized, so a control of the heat treatment or changing the cooking method is suggested.
Many Western countries have been affected by the outbreak of COVID-19. Italy has been particularly hit at the beginning of the pandemic, immediately after China. In Italy and elsewhere women seem to be less affected then men by severe/fatal COVID-19 infection, regardless of their age. Despite the evidence that women and men are different fort this infection, very few studies consider different therapeutic approaches for the two sexes. Undoubtedly, understanding the mechanisms at the bases of these differences may help to find appropriate and sex specific therapies. Here we consider that other mechanisms but estrogen protection are involved. Several X-linked genes (such as ACE2) and Y-linked genes (SRY, SOX9) may explain sex differences. Cardiovascular comorbidities are among the major enhancers of virus lethality. In addition, the number of sex-independent non-genetic factors that can change susceptibility and mortality is enormous, and many other factors are likely to be considered, including gender and cultural habits in different countries.
Purification of biodiesel with dry adsorbents is an alternative method, as it uses compounds that eliminate the need for water in the process without generating liquid effluent. Currently, there is little discussion about the reuse of different types of adsorbents and in this context, the present work presents an efficient method of purification and investigates the performance of the reuse of Magnesol® in the purification of biodiesel in order to generate less waste to the environment. Therefore, the Magnesol® used was washed with several solvents with different polarity characteristics. Among the solvents tested, THF is the best solvent for the purification of Magnesol® and, after optimizing the Magnesol® purification process, it was concluded the best conditions are three washes in solvent / adsorbent ratio 30:1 at room temperature, resulting in only 3.89% of the residual value of contaminants and being an alternative for biodiesel companies.
The present study investigates numerically symmetry simulation of two-phase nanofluid flow and heat transfer in a 3D diamond shape cavity equipped with square-shaped obstacle and decreasing dimensions. The studied material in the present study is assumed with two different emissivity values, ԑ = 0.3 and ԑ = 0.9, due to analyze the effects of emissivity values on radiation heat transfer. Also two different Rayleigh numbers, Ra=106 and 108. The heat transfer fluid is water-based Cu nanofluid which makes a Newtonian nanofluid, but other base fluid is also analyzed. The main aim of present work is to simulate the 3D diamond shape cavity equipped with square-shaped obstacle and decreasing dimensions geometry using symmetry method and also investigate the effects of different Rayleigh numbers, emissivity values and different nanoparticles volume concentrations on thermal and hydraulic characteristics of the model. Base on obtained results, by an increase of nanoparticles volume concentration the temperature gradients and heat transfer characteristics are improved but the streamlines have not a significant change and by an increase of nanoparticles volume concentration the temperature gradients and heat transfer characteristics are improved, but the streamlines have not a significant change. According to results at higher Rayleigh numbers, the heat transfer characteristics are enhanced. Also, it is found that higher Rayleigh numbers and nanoparticles volume concentrations lead to more heat transfer inside the cavity and changes in emissivity coefficients have not a significant effect on heat transfer characteristics and nanofluid flow in the cavity.
Aim To observe the clinical effect of small splint fixation and Gukangling-Fluid in the treatment of patients with closed trauma fractures. Materials and Methods Methods: the patients were divided into two groups: 350 cases of Gukangling-Fluid treatment group and 84 cases of conventional western medicine plaster control group. Results Results statistically significant difference was found between the two groups (P<0.001). The total effective rate of the experimental treatment group was 92 %, and that of the conventional western medicine control group was 72 %. Conclusion Gukangling-Fluid has a good effect on the treatment of closed fracture.
Aim To observe the clinical efficacy and healing time of small splint fixation and Gukangling-Flquid in the treatment of patients with closed traumatic fracture treated with conventional western medicine plaster fixation. Methods The patients were divided into two groups:Gukangling-Flquid treatment group and western medicine conventional plaster control group. Results The total effective rate of the experimental treatment group was higher than that of the conventional western medicine control group. Conclusion Gukangling-Flquid has a good curative effect on the treatment of closed fractures. The clinical healing time of Gukangling-Flquid is one third earlier than that of conventional western medicine.
Estimation of the crop coefficient (Kc) in the conventional crop coefficient EvapoTranspiration (ET) method requires detailed knowledge of geo/biophysical properties of the coupled land–vegetation system, precipitation, along with monitoring soil moisture gradient. In practice, precise quantification of these parameters is challenging, if not impossible, which reduces the accuracy of the model significantly. This paper addresses these issues by expressing Kc as a 2nd order polynomial function of relative humidity (RH) and reference ET (ETo) calculated over the same crop, where the coefficients of the function are crop–specific. This shapes the framework of the Ambient Regression Evapotranspiration Model (AREM), a real–time, simple actual ET model. Six years 15-min micrometeorological records of six sites (i.e. corn, soybeans, prairie, and forest) in Iowa, New Hampshire, and California of the USA were used to calibrate the model. The Mean Absolute Percentage Error (MAPE) of the regression was 18.2% during the growing season (days of year 140–260), and 28.4% for the entire year. The Root Mean Square Error (RMSE) was 0.69 mm day–1 with coefficient of determination (R2) = 0.73. The results indicate that AREM requires calibration over various soil types. The average MAPE of 30% over the four Iowan sites was obtained based on inputs from weather stations and NLDAS-2 of NASA, which suggests that the model can be widely employed in practical applications requiring real–time ET with reasonable accuracy. AREM was capable of capturing the dynamics of ET irrespective of varying complexities of biophysical and climatological states.
This paper explores the possibility of AI-based narrative therapy for borderline personality disorder, its potential advantages, drawbacks, and limitations. It is argued that identity disturbance in this condition is strongly connected to self-narratives, and the most important features of narrative therapy, which, in a human-to-human form, is one of the more successful treatment options for BDP, could be adapted to AI. While human oversight cannot and should not be eliminated, AI support would hold forth the prospect of overcoming certain hurdles associated with patient-therapist interaction frequently marring the therapeutic process.
This paper examines drivers of adoption of soil and water conservation measure, and its impact on yield and technical efficiency of maize cultivation using plot level data from drought prone area of Karnataka, India. To account for selection bias from both observable and unobservable factors, an endogenous switching regression model is employed to estimate the impact of technology on yield and technical inefficiency, which is estimated data envelope analysis-meta-frontier approach. Results reveal that adoption of soil and water conservation measure i.e. bunding leads to significant increase yield of maize by 30% and reduces technical inefficiency by 28%. Further, results reveal that farmers’ access to credit, extension services, access to credit and extension services not only has positive influence on the adoption of soil and water conservation measures, but also associated with higher technical efficiency. Overall, results point to need further scaling of soil and water conservation measures for greater adoption, particularly in drought prone areas. The paper concludes that policymakers and development organizations should consider soil and water conservation as main strategy improve the crop productivity, and thereby the livelihoods, particularly of resource poor farmers.
The failure analysis of an elbow tube of a pyrolysis furnace after three years of service which is only one third of the designed life span has been studied. An investigation to identify the root causes of the failed tube was carried out by macro inspections, chemical composition analysis, metallographic microscopy, scanning electron microscope (SEM) images and energy disperse spectroscope (EDS) analysis. Through analysis of the failed tube samples, we found no evidence of bulging and thinning, that the cracks originated from the pores and inclusions inside the fusion line of the inner wall, under high temperature and stress effects, that the cracks expanded towards the base material along the circumferential direction of the tube until it breaks.