Landfill gas is a source of CH4 emission, also rich in CO2 (up to 50 vol%). It can be upgraded to renewable natural gas (RNG) by separating CO2 and impurities. Alternatively, the CO2 contained in biogas can be converted into CH4 via the Sabatier reaction, using H2 generated by water electrolysis. For industrial applications, it is beneficial to eliminate the energy intensive CO2 separation step, converting biogas to RNG directly. In this work, a series of 0.02-1 wt% Ru/γ-Al2O3 catalysts were prepared by wet impregnation and evaluated for a single-pass conversion of CO2-CH4 mixtures. Through the catalytic performance evaluation and characterization studies, the optimal Ru loading was identified as 0.1-0.5 wt%. For these catalysts, CO2 conversion of 80-87% was achieved at 450 °C and 90,000 mL/(g h), maintaining 95-99% selectivity to CH4 production. These catalysts also showed excellent stability over 100 h on stream, while maintaining 99-100% CH4 selectivity.
This work presents a large-eddy simulation of coal combustion at the down-fired self-sustanied oxy-fuel combustor (OFC) which includes the multi-physics phenomena: turbulent flows, particle flow, heat transfer, coal combustion and ash particle deposition. This modeling work also includes a dynamic ash deposition model coupled with the heat-transfer model for the solid surface. This work mainly analyzes the time and length scale of the flow field. Effects of unresolved turbulent scales on the particle motions are also analyzed by the Stokes number analysis based on the subgrid-scale turbulence. Overall, results of this approach are tested against experimentally measured data at this facility. Results from the OFC simulation show that the averaged gas temperature and deposition rates agree within 5\% and 28\%, respectively, with the measured data. The presented model can be used to simulate coal combustion in the industrial-scale pulverized coal boiler.
The present work predicts a novel technique for treating workable results. It aims to more professional data analysis with less numbers of experiments. A Predictive Conceived Diagonal (PCD) technique is suggested for this target. For the latter a non-linear regression procedure is applied using MATLAB software. Four published examples are employed and treated. By deploying rate of reaction -Arrhenius combination for studying a pair of factors simultaneously the performed results are very closed to that reported. It also successfully applied for lab scale uranium removal from nitrate solution by Amberlite IR 120 at Nuclear Materials Authority, Egypt.
How landscapes affect ecological processes is an important area of research that needs to be developed. To reveal the mechanisms of ecological processes, a study was carried out in Kaiyang County, China. Source–sink landscapes and the mechanisms influencing ecological processed were identified using correlation analysis and regression analysis. The results showed that: urbanization led to more land being used for construction and less cultivated land, forest land, and grassland. Some types of land use as source landscapes contributed to the thermal process, while others did the opposite. This was true at both the city scale and the county scale. Source and sink landscape changes were investigated as factors potentially influencing ecological processes: a relationship model between source–sink landscapes and thermal process provided significant correlation. The source–sink landscapes area ratio at the city scale versus the county scale was 1.6, changing the ecological landscape from a low scale to high scale did not affect the mechanisms influencing ecological processes. Temperature is the limiting factor for NPP and precipitation was a further consideration based on the temperature state. The study provides an effective reference for exploring the mechanisms influencing ecological processes and understanding the mechanism of ecosystem-scale transformation, and could be used as a basis for the regulation of ecosystem functions.
Few previous studies suggested the circulation of Crimean Congo hemorrhagic fever virus (CCHFV) in Romania, but were based on serological techniques. The present work investigated the presence of CCHFV RNA in Rhipicephalus sp. and Dermacentor sp. ticks, in south-eastern Romania. In July 2019, 127 ticks were collected from the environment and from domestic ruminants (sheep and goats) in five different locations from Tulcea county. All tick samples were tested using Real Time RT-PCR based on SYBR Green with the purpose to detect the CCHFV. For this purpose, specific primer sets for each of the six known CCHFV genotypes and one degenerate primer pair for the detection of all genotypes were used. None of the samples was identified as positive (prevalence <2,5%, p=0.05), highlighting the nil or the low prevalence of CCHFV RNA in Dermacentor sp. and Rhipicephalus sp. ticks from Tulcea county, in 2019. Further studies based on the serological surveillance of animals and more comprehensive ticks testing by molecular biology methods if CCHFV circulates at very low level in Romania.
Background:The first-line method in the diagnosis of patients who describe an immediate reaction after penicillin intake is skin tests(ST)with penicillin reagents. We aimed to determine the safety and diagnostic value of penicillin STs in the diagnosis of immediate reactions to penicillins. Methods:The study included patients with suspected immediate reaction to penicillin who were subjected to STs using a standard penicillin test kit (Diater;Madrid,Spain) and suspected penicillin and drug provocation tests(DPT) with suspected penicillin at our clinic Results:A total of 191 patients(53.9%males)with a median age of 6.83 years(inter-quartile range:4.2-12)were included in the study.The time from drug intake to the onset of reaction was ≤1 hour in 138(72.3%)patients and 1 to 6 hours in 53(27.7%)patients.Penicillin allergy was confirmed by diagnostic tests in 36(18.8%)of 191 patients.In multivariate logistic regression analysis, history of both urticaria and angioedema(odds ratio[OR]:27,683 95%confidence interval[CI]:3.143-243.837,p = 0.003) and anaphylaxis (OR:56.246, 95%CI:6.598-479.489, p <0.001) were main predictors of penicillin allergy diagnosis. While STs were positive in 23(63.8%)patients, 13(26.2%)patients had positive DPT results despite negative ST results. The negative predictive value(NPV)of STs was calculated 92.2% (155/168).None of our patients experienced immediate or delayed systemic/local reactions in relation to the STs. Conclusions:History of urticaria with and anaphylaxis were main predictors of true penicillin allergy in children with suspected immediate reactions.Skin tests with penicillin reagents are safe for use in children. Although STs have a high NPV, DPT is the gold standard for diagnosis. Drug provocation tests should be performed as the final step of the diagnostic evaluation of penicillin allergy in patients with negative STs
Background: Exhaled nitric oxide and blood eosinophils are clinical asthma type 2 markers in use. Immunoglobulin E (IgE) is often involved in the inflammation associated with atopic asthma. The effect of both blood eosinophils and allergen-specific IgE on exhaled nitric oxide levels is not completely understood. Twin-design studies can improve understanding of the underlying contribution of genetically and/or environmentally driven inflammation markers in asthma. Our aim was to disentangle the covariance between asthma and exhaled nitric oxide into genetic and environmental contributions that can account for inflammation markers in a paediatric population. Methods: This population-based, cross-sectional twin study enrolled 612 monozygotic (MZ) and same-sex dizygotic (DZ) schoolchildren. Multivariate structural equation modelling was utilized to separate the covariance between asthma and exhaled nitric oxide into genetic and/or environmental effects, taking allergen-specific IgE level and blood eosinophil count into account while controlling for confounding factors. Results: The cross-twin/cross-trait correlations had a higher magnitude in the MZ twins than in the DZ twins indicating that genes affect the association. The likelihood ratio test for model fitting resulted in the AE model as the most parsimonious. A majority, 73%, of the phenotypic correlation between asthma and exhaled nitric oxide, r=0.19 (0.05–0.33), was attributable to genetic effects which mainly was due to the allergen-specific IgE level. Conclusions: This study indicate that the association between asthma - exhaled nitric oxide in children is to a large extent explained by genetics via allergen-specific IgE-level but not blood eosinophils. This might partly explain the clinical heterogeneity in this group. A next step could be to include allergen-specific IgE level in multivariate omic-studies.
Aim: We compared the efficacy and safety of insulin degludec/insulin aspart co-formulation (IDegAsp) twice-daily to a free combination of basal insulin degludec and GLP-1 receptor agonist liraglutide (IDeg+Lira) once-daily for patients with inadequately controlled type 2 diabetes on insulin therapy and oral antidiabetic drugs. Subjects and Methods: Eligible patients were randomly allocated at a 1:1 ratio to receive either the once-daily dual-injection of IDeg+Lira (n=24) or twice-daily single-injection of IDegAsp (n=28). The primary endpoints were: HbA1c changes over 52 weeks of treatment and the percentage of participants achieving HbA1c<7.0% at week 52. Results: After 52 weeks, HbA1c decreased by 0.3% in the IDegAsp group and by 0.7% in the IDeg+Lira group. The HbA1c reduction was greater in the IDeg+Lira group than in the IDegAsp group. 19% of patients on IDegAsp versus 40% on IDeg+Lira achieved HbA1c<7.0%. Pre-breakfast and pre-dinner blood glucose at 52 weeks were significantly lower in the IDeg+Lira group than in the IDegAsp group. The reduction in body mass index (BMI) was greater in the IDeg+Lira group than in the IDegAsp group throughout the study period. The confirmed hypoglycemia rates were 1.32 and 0.69 per patient/year of exposure to IDegAsp and IDeg+Lira, respectively. Conclusions: In patients with inadequately controlled type 2 diabetes on insulin therapy and oral antidiabetic drugs, treatment with the once-daily dual-injection of IDeg+Lira compared to the twice-daily single-injection of IDegAsp showed no significant difference in glycemic control, but with a slightly larger reduction in HbA1c at 52 weeks, and statistically superior weight loss.
Porcine Deltacoronavirus is a newly emergent enteric pathogen affecting swine farms worldwide. It has been detected in several countries in Europe, Asia and North America. Yet, it has not been reported in South America. In November 2019, an enteric disease outbreak in a pig farm located in San Martin, Peru was reported along with submission of three intestinal samples from pigs who succumbed to the disease. Samples were processed for molecular detection by qRT-PCR, viral isolation and further sequencing analysis. A taqman-based RT-PCR was performed to differentiate among the most relevant swine enteric coronaviruses described to date. All samples were positives to Porcine Deltacoronavirus with a cycle threshold (Ct) between 9-14, revealing a high viral load, while tested negatives to Porcine Epidemic diarrhea and Transmissible Gastroenteritis viruses. Following detection, viral isolation was performed using PK-15 and Vero cell lines. After 5 days of inoculation, no cytopathic effect was observed. A second blind passage allowed the observation of cytopathic effect on PK-15 cells, while it remained absent in Vero cells. One sample was processed for whole genome sequencing (NGS). In short, raw reads were imported into CLC genomics and assembled de novo. Out of 479k reads generated from the sample, 436k assembled into a 25501 bp contig which was 99.5% identical to a reference Porcine Deltacoronavirus strain from US within the North American phylogroup. Yet, there are relevant differences at the nucleotide and amino acid levels compared to previously described Porcine Deltacoronavirus strains. Altogether, our findings represent the first report of Porcine Deltacoronavirus in South America, its genomic characterization, which provides information of its evolutionary origin. Thus, this study offers new insights into the molecular epidemiology of Porcine Deltacoronavirus infections in the swine industry.
BACKGROUND: Many patients report questionable drug hypersensitivity reactions (DHR) to betalactams. Allergological evaluation is required for objectivation. Recently, some researchers advocated direct drug provocation tests (DPTs) omitting a prior allergy-workup. However, DPTs bare the risk of severe side effects and are a scarce resource in overloaded healthcare-systems. We investigated the value of an approach using only the broadly available methods drug-specific history, specific IgE, and skin tests without DPT. METHODS: We conducted a chart review in a retrospective cohort of 932 patients in an allergy outpatient centre from 2016-2017. Patients had been submitted to drug-specific history and specific IgE-, skin prick-, intradermal- and patch-tests with early and late readings with a series of penicillins and cephalosporins but DPTs were no option. RESULTS: Overall, positive in vitro and/or skin tests were found in 96/932 (10.3%) patients. Drug-specific IgE was detected in 40/932 (4.3%) patients, 61/787 (7.8%) patients had positive skin tests. In vitro tests to Pencillin V showed the highest rate of positivity 24/479 (5.0%) and early readings of ampicillin the highest amongst the skin tests 3/49 (6.1%). Immediate skin tests were more often positive than delayed ones (75:45). The combination of all parameters including drug-specific history solved 346/932 (37.1%) cases while 586/932 (62.9%) remained unresolved. Females and younger children carried a lower risk for positive tests (p<0.05, Χ2-test). CONCLUSIONS: Testing with betalactams applying simple, cheap, and safe skin and blood tests can solve a third of DHR-cases on a high throughput scale.
Background: We investigated whether residing in places with higher greenness, more trees and more allergenic trees early in life increases the risk of allergic outcomes, and whether these associations differ depending on the concentration of air pollutants. Methods: The analytic sample included 631 children from the German birth cohort LISA Leipzig. Asthma and allergic rhinitis, sensitization to aeroallergens and food allergens, as well as confounders, were collected prospectively up to 15 years. Greenness was assessed by Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI). A tree registry was used to derive information on trees, which were classified into allergenic and non-allergenic. Annual average concentrations of nitrogen dioxide (NO2) and ozone were also used. Geographic exposures were assigned to home addresses at birth. Longitudinal associations were analysed using generalized estimating equations. Results: Medium and high numbers (tertiles) of trees and allergenic trees in a 500 m buffer around birth addresses were associated with increased odds of allergic rhinitis up to 15 years regardless of NDVI. These exposures were also related to higher odds of sensitization to aeroallergens. Associations with asthma and sensitization to food allergens were less consistent. Effect estimates for allergic rhinitis were stronger in the high tertile of NO2 compared to the low tertile, while an opposite tendency was observed for ozone. Conclusion: We observed that early life residence in places with many trees, and allergenic trees specifically, may increase the prevalence of allergic rhinitis later in life. This association and its modification by air pollution should be pursued in further studies.
Background: Tight junctions (TJs) are intracellular structures which are essential for epithelial barrier function and play an important role in antimicrobial defense. Epithelium dysfunction and type-2-skewed inflammation are two main pathological phenomena of chronic rhinosinusitis with nasal polyps (CRSwNP). However, the effect of pro-inflammatory type-2 cytokine interleukin-13 (IL-13) on TJs in CRSwNP is poorly understood. Methods: Nasal biopsies of 70 CRSwNP patients and 25 healthy subjects, and in vitro IL-13-matured human nasal epithelial cells (hNECs) in 9 persons were used to analyze epithelial markers and TJ proteins. Epithelium permeability, transepithelial electrical resistance (TEER), mRNA and protein expression of TJs were quantified for IL-13-matured hNECs and that with RV infection. Results: Both mRNA and protein expression of occludin, claudin-3 and ZO-1 were significantly decreased in CRSwNP biopsies and in hNECs after IL-13 treatment. Differentiation of hNECs with IL-13 treatment increased epithelium permeability, decreased TEER and altered hNECs composition resulting in lesser ciliated cells and mucus over-secretion. Interestingly, claudin-3 is selectively expressed on ciliated cells. While RV infection induced minimal changes to TJs, the IL-13-matured hNECs has reduced capacity for upregulation of IFN-λ1 and CXCL10 but further increased the expression of TSLP upon acute RV infection. Conclusions: These findings suggested that IL-13-mediated dysfunction of TJs and compromised epithelial barrier. IL-13-induced cilia loss conferred lowered viral replication and impaired antiviral responses of nasal epithelium against acute RV infection.
This study aimed to analyze the characteristics of soil microbial communities of Hippophae rhamnoides forest during the revegetation of abandoned cropland in the Loess Plateau in China. We used high-throughput sequencing technology to analyze the carbon (C) and nitrogen (N) characteristics of soil microorganisms and the relationship between the soil environment and the soil microbial community structure in pure and mixed Hippophae rhamnoides forests in Wuqi County, Shaanxi province. The findings revealed that soil microbial C and N in different soil layers showed a decreasing trend with an increase in soil layers and the structural difference of the soil microbial community among different forest stands in the study area was smaller than that among different soil layers. Gracilibacteria, Gemmatimonadetes, Nitrospirae, Parcubacteria, and Actinonobacteria in bacteria were significantly correlated with soil environmental factors. Ichthyosporea and Ciliophora in fungi were strongly affected by environmental factors. The effect of environmental factors on bacteria is greater than that on fungi. Our findings can provide some data to support and feasible suggestions for studies on revegetation in the Loess Plateau.
Despite recognizing the role of wetlands in providing ecosystem services to human wellbeing, around 70% of the wetland ecosystems are destroyed globally since the 1990s. In particular, wetland ecosystems are destroyed in response to faster economic, urban, and population growth in the world megacities and developing countries. In contrast, wetlands ecosystems have received less attention in research and policy. Therefore, we made a first attempt to unravel the Spatio-temporal dynamics of wetlands in the Dhaka city of Bangladesh, which is one of the fastest-growing megacities in the world. The results show that a total of ~ 1,600 ha (~ 50% of the total wetlands) wetlands have been lost in Dhaka from 1990 to 2015. In contrast, the land-use types that increased the most were built-up, which increased by ~9,250 ha (378%) since 1990. These changes are mainly due to rapid urbanization and industrialization. It has been observed that Land Surface Temperature (LST) has increased 15 oC within 30 years in those lands which converted from wetlands to landfill. In addition to the increase in LST, drainage congestion, depletion of groundwater are increasing in response to wetlands degradation. The restoration of wetlands into the initial state of the 1990s would be highly challenging. However, efforts should be made to restore wetlands which offers potential as a nature-based solution to cope with climate change. These findings can be used as a reference in the formulation and implementation of sustainable wetlands management policies.
Lodging is a threat for maize production worldwide. Coronatine (COR) is a jasmonic acid analog hopeful to be a new plant growth regulator in agriculture. In this study, we demonstrated that the plant height of ZD958 and XY335, two cultivated maize hybrids, was significantly decreased under COR treatment via reducing internode length and thus improve lodging resistance. To explore gene expression changes driving the responses of internode to COR, spatio-temporal transcriptomic data of inbred B73 internode were generated under normal condition and COR treatment, including the fixed, meristem and elongation regions. The transcriptional features of the three regions at normal condition were characterized and then compared with that upon COR treatment. A total of 8605 COR-responsive genes (COR-RGs) were identified, including 802 internode specific genes. Both the number and function categories were greatly changed for COR-RGs identified in fixed, meristem and elongation regions, indicating different groups of genes were regulated at the three regions. Besides, we found the expressions of more than 80% of gibberellin and jasmonic acid related genes were changed under COR treatment. The characterization of gene expression response in internode under COR treatment here is useful for further unraveling the mechanism of plant height decrease by COR.
Cardiotoxicity, including acute and late-onset cardiotoxicity, was a well-known adverse effect of many types of antitumor agents. Early identification of patients with cardiotoxicity was important to ensure prompt treatment and minimize toxic effects. This study compared the potential ability of multinomial technique in early detection, prediction and combined diagnosis of chemotherapy induced cardiotoxicity. We constructed a chemotherapy induced cardiotoxicity model through intraperitoneal injection bevacizumab and 5-fluorouracil in Balb/c mice. These mice were administered with electrocardiogram, conventional echocardiography, speckle tracking echocardiography, PET-CT, detection of B-type natriuretic peptide, myocardial pathology. Compared with other cardiac diagnose techniques, speckle tracking echocardiography and 18F-FDG myocardial imaging can detect myocardial injury in the early stage. The global longitudinal strain may provide a noninvasive and accurate method for the early detection of cardiotoxicity. The long axis longitudinal strain of left ventricular first decreased in the apical segment of left ventricle. The long axis radial strain of left ventricular first decreased in the posterior segment of left ventricle. The short axis radial strain and circumferential strain of left ventricular first decreased in the anterior wall of left ventricle.
This study analyzed the corelation between COVID-19 and temperature in India. Secondary published data from different websites is used by us. The climate indicators included in the study are maximum temperature, minimum temperature. Kendall and Spearman rank correlation tests were chosen for data analysis. We find that maximum temperature has significant relations associated with the COVID-19 pandemic. The findings of this study will help health regulators to combat COVID-19 in India and the rest of the world.
The objective of this study was to assess the genetic diversity and population structure of nine sheep populations (four famous mutton breeds worldwide, three popular mutton populations and two most famous high prolific breeds in China) and predict the heterosis among these populations based on microsatellite markers. Results showed the relatively rich genetic diversity in Chinese sheep populations. The results of UPGMA phylogenetic tree and Structure analysis indicated that the nine investigated populations can be divided into two groups. Suffolk and Dorset were clustered in one group, and the other group can be further divided into three clusters: GMM-BAS-BAM, HUS-STH and DOS-DOP. This is consistent with sheep breeding history. TreeMix analysis also hinted the possible gene flow from GMM to SUF. Additionally, based on the calculation of genetic distance, the optimal cross combinations are recommended for two popular mutton sheep populations (BAM and BAS) in the southern Mongolian Plateau and the most famous high prolific breeds (Small Tail Han sheep and Hu sheep) in China, respectively. Together, these results bring us an in-depth view of genetic diversity within sheep population and the genetic relationship among populations.