The “coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19)” outbreak was first reported in December 2019 (China). Since then, this disease has rapidly spread across the globe and in March 2020 the World Health Organization (WHO) declared the COVID-19 pandemic.1 Since the outbreak was first announced, our journal has extensively focused on the clinical features, outcomes, diagnosis, immunology, and pathogenesis of COVID-19 and its infectious agent severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). We published our first COVID-19 article on 19 February, focusing for the first time on the clinical characteristics of 140 cases of human-to-human coronavirus transmission without any links to the Huanan Wet Market.2 Hypertension and diabetes were mentioned as risk factors and there was no increased prevalence in allergic patients. This early study reported that the main symptoms at hospital admission were fever (91.7%), cough (75.0%), fatigue (75.0%), gastrointestinal symptoms (39.6%), and dyspnea (36.7%). Lymphopenia and eosinopenia were also reported as important signs and biomarkers for monitoring and severity of the patients.2 The prevalent eosinopenia in COVID-19 patients and the possible anti-viral role of eosinophils were further discussed in several following publications inAllergy .3,4 Our second COVID-19 paper brought attention to the wide range of clinical manifestations of this disease, from asymptomatic cases to patients with mild and severe symptoms, with or without pneumonia as well as with only diarrhea.5Patients with common allergic diseases did not develop distinct symptoms and severe courses. Cases with pre-existing chronic obstructive pulmonary disease or complicated with a secondary bacterial pneumonia were severe. Another article, timely appearing in our journal, alerted the scientific community that even in experienced hands there was a 14.1% false negative polymerase chain reaction (PCR) diagnosis in COVID-19 cases and were later diagnosed positive after repeated tests.6 A pediatric article was also published extensively analyzing 182 cases and it was reported that children with COVID-19 showed a mild clinical course.7 Patients with pneumonia had a higher proportion of fever and cough and increased inflammatory biomarkers compared to those without pneumonia. There were 43 allergic patients in this series and there was no significant difference between allergic and non-allergic COVID-19 children in disease incidence, clinical features, laboratory, and immunological findings. Allergy was not a risk factor for disease and severity of SARS-CoV-2 infection and did not significantly influence the disease course of COVID-19 in children.7The immunology of COVID-19 was extensively reviewed in two articles from leading experts with a comprehensive discussion of the tip of the iceberg in COVID-19 epidemiology, anti-viral response, antibody response to SARS-CoV-2, acute phase reactants, cytokine storm, and pathogenesis of tissue injury and severity. 8,9Two studies timely reported the role of possible trained immunity in countries with a Bacillus Calmette-Guérin (BCG) vaccination programme and a relatively low COVID-19 prevalence and mortality rate.10,11 In an extensive RNA sequencing analyses of SARS-CoV-2 receptor and their molecular partners revealed that ACE2 and TMPRSS2 were coexpressed at the epithelial sites of the lung and skin, whereas CD147 (BSG), cyclophilins (PPIA and PPIB), CD26 (DPP4) and related molecules were expressed in both, epithelium and in immune cells.12Allergists, respiratory physicians, pediatricians, and other health care providers treating patients with allergic diseases are frequently in contact with patients potentially infected with SARS-CoV-2. Practical considerations and recommendations given by experts in the field of allergic diseases can provide useful recommendations for clinical daily work. Since the beginning of this current pandemic, our journal has disseminated clinical reports, 2,3,5,6,13 statements on the urgent need for accuracy in designing and reporting clinical trials in COVID-19,14 preventive measures,10,11,15 and Position Statements elaborated by experts in the field in close collaboration with the European Academy of Allergy and Clinical Immunology (EAACI) and its task force “Allergy and Its Impact on Asthma (ARIA) ”.16-28 (keynote information in table 1). A compendium answering 150 frequently encountered questions regarding COVID-19 and allergic diseases has been recently published by experts in their respective area.29 In addition, readers can put further questions regarding this “living ” compendium electronically to the authors and their answers will be available through a new category in the journal’s webpage.30Besides, EAACI in collaboration with ARIA, has provided recommendations on operational plans and practical procedures for ensuring optimal standards in the daily clinical care of patients with allergic diseases, whilst ensuring the safety of patients and healthcare workers.23Table 1: Examples of recently published recommendations, statements and Position Papers of the EAACI
To the Editor,We read carefully the research letter “Is asthma protective of COVID-19?” by Carli et al recently published.1Important topic for asthma patients in the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic were considered, including that until recently weak evidence that patients with chronic respiratory disorders are at a lower risk of being infected or becoming severely ill with Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2).Reflecting only about previous reports from China and Italy where asthma was underrepresented in COVID-19 patients, the authors accept the heterogeneous condition that it is asthma, speculating that T2-immunity, interferon-mediated immune responses and increased number of eosinophils in the airways could have a protective effect against COVID-19 severity.1The epidemiology of COVID-19 is changing rapidly with new data. More recent reports from the United States of America and from several European countries, in particular the United Kingdom (UK), states a higher asthma prevalence in patients with COVID-19, suggesting that asthma is more common in COVID-19 patients than it was previously reported in Asia and in the first European surveys.2Data from the UK Biobank, a large prospective case-control study, found an asthma prevalence of 17,9% in 605 COVID-19 hospitalized patients, mostly of them adults, surpassing the prevalence of asthma in the general population.3Besides that, in the OpenSAFELY Collaborative Study (UK), it was found a significant increased risk of severe CoViD-19 in patients with asthma, including death, in particular related with the recent use of oral corticosteroid (OCS).4 These findings can indicate an increased asthma severity and/or poor control and, in accordance with data from previous coronavirus outbreaks, that systemic corticosteroids were associated with a higher viral load.5We agree with Carli et al1 that further studies focused on asthma and its different phenotypes are needed to provide a better understanding of the impact of SARS-CoV-2 infection in patients with asthma.6 Nevertheless, for the moment, it seems crucial that patients with asthma do not stop their controller medication, that may lead to a higher risk of asthma exacerbations, increased OCS use and higher probability to emergency room access and hospitalization that represent themselves significant risk factors for coronavirus exposure and spread.In conclusion, according with the available data, patients with asthma must still be included in the high-risk groups for COVID-19 and more data are needed to understand the relationship between asthma and COVID-19.
The pandemic condition Coronavirus-disease (COVID-19), caused by the novel severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) can take asymptomatic, mild, moderate, and severe courses. COVID-19 affects primarily the respiratory airways leading to dry cough, fever, myalgia, headache, fatigue, and diarrhea and can end up in interstitial pneumonia and severe respiratory failure. Different clinical symptoms caused by involvement of organs outside the respiratory system have been also described. Interestingly, reports about the manifestation of various skin lesions and lesions of the vascular system in some subgroups of SARS-CoV-2 positive patients as such features outside the respiratory sphere, are rapidly emerging. However, knowledge about prevalence and pattern of skin involvement, time of onset, predilection, and its direct or indirect relation to SARS-CoV-2 is still limited. In order to update information gained, we provide a systematic overview of the skin lesions described in COVID-19 patients, discuss potential causative factors and describe differential diagnostic evaluations.
Background Currently, the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) has become pandemic globally. 10-20% of the cases are severe and more than 397,000 deaths have occurred. The risk factors for the mortality of critically ill COVID-19 patients remain to be elucidated. Conclusions Survived severe and non-survived COVID-19 patients had distinct clinical and laboratory characteristics, which were separated by principle component analysis. Logistic regression revealed several risk factors such as elder age, greater affected lobe numbers and higher level of serum CRP for the mortality of severe COVID-19 patients. Longitudinal changes of laboratory findings indicate the advancement of the disease and may be helpful in predicting the progression of severe patients.
In December 2019, China reported the first cases of the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). This disease, caused by the severe acute respiratory syndrome-related coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), has developed into a pandemic. To date it has resulted in ~5.6 million confirmed cases and caused 353,334 related deaths worldwide. Unequivocally, the COVID-19 pandemic is the gravest health and socio-economic crisis of our time. In this context, numerous questions have emerged in demand of basic scientific information and evidence-based medical advice on SARS-CoV-2 and COVID-19. Although the majority of the patients show a very mild, self-limiting viral respiratory disease, many clinical manifestations in severe patients are unique to COVID-19, such as severe lymphopenia and eosinopenia, extensive pneumonia, a “cytokine storm” leading to acute respiratory distress syndrome, endothelitis, thrombo-embolic complications and multiorgan failure. The epidemiologic features of COVID-19 are distinctive and have changed throughout the pandemic. Vaccine and drug development studies and clinical trials are rapidly growing at an unprecedented speed. However, basic and clinical research on COVID-19-related topics should be based on more coordinated high-quality studies. This paper answers pressing questions, formulated by young clinicians and scientists, on SARS-CoV-2, COVID-19 and allergy, focusing on the following topics: virology, immunology, diagnosis, management of patients with allergic disease and asthma, treatment, clinical trials, drug discovery, vaccine development and epidemiology. Over 140 questions were answered by experts in the field providing a comprehensive and practical overview of COVID-19 and allergic disease.
Adolescent and young adult (AYA) patients need additional support while they experience the challenges associated with their age. They need specific training to learn the knowledge and skills required to confidently self-manage their allergies and/or asthma. Transitional care is a complex process which should address the psychological, medical, educational and vocational needs of AYA in the developmentally appropriate way. The European Academy of Allergy and Clinical Immunology has developed a clinical practice guideline to provide evidence-based recommendations for healthcare professionals to support the transitional care of AYA with allergy and/or asthma. This guideline was developed by a multi-disciplinary working panel of experts and patient representatives based on two recent systematic reviews. It sets out a series of general recommendations on operating a clinical service for AYA, which include: (i) starting transition early (11-13 years), (ii) using a structured, multidisciplinary approach, (iii) ensuring AYA fully understand their condition and have resources they can access, (iv) active monitoring of adherence and (v) discussing any implications for further education and work. Specific allergy and asthma transition recommendations include (i) simplifying medication regimes and using reminders; (ii) focusing on areas where AYA are not confident and involving peers in training AYA patients; (iii) identifying and managing psychological and socioeconomic issues impacting disease control and quality of life; (iv) enrolling the family in assisting AYA to undertake self-management and (v) encouraging AYA to let their friends know about their allergies and asthma. These recommendations may need to be adapted to fit into national healthcare systems.
The International Classification of Diseases (ICD) provides a common language for use worldwide as a diagnostic and classification tool for epidemiology, clinical purposes and health management. Since its first edition, the ICD has maintained a framework distributing conditions according to topography, with the result that some complex conditions, such as allergies and hypersensitivity disorders (A/H) including anaphylaxis, have been poorly represented. The change in hierarchy in ICD-11 permitted the construction of the pioneer section addressed to A/H, which may result in more accurate mortality and morbidity statistics, including more accurate accounting for mortality due to anaphylaxis, strengthen classification, terminology and definitions. The ICD-11 was presented and adopted by the 72nd World Health Assembly in May 2019 and the implementation is ongoing worldwide. We here present the outcomes from an online survey undertaken to reach out the allergy community worldwide in order to peer review the terminology, classification and definitions of A/H introduced into ICD-11 and to support their global implementation. Data are presented here for 406 respondents from 74 countries. All of the sub-sections of the new A/H section of the ICD-11 had been considered with good accuracy by the majority of respondents. We believe that, in addition to help during the implementation phase, all the comments provided will help to improve the A/H classification and to increase awareness by different disciplines of what actions are needed to ensure more accurate epidemiological data and better clinical management of A/H patients.
Medical algorithm: Treatment of Atopic Dermatitis in Early Childhood (part II)Sherief R. Janmohamed MD PhD1, Johannes Ring MD2, Lawrence F. Eichenfield MD3, Jan Gutermuth MD11Department of Dermatology, Universitair Ziekenhuis Brussel (UZ Brussel), Vrije Universiteit Brussel (VUB), Laarbeeklaan 101, 1090 Jette, Brussels, Belgium2Department of Dermatology and Allergology Biederstein, Technical University Munich, München, Germany3Departments of Dermatology and Pediatrics, University of California, San Diego School of Medicine and Rady Children’s Hospital, San Diego CA, USA
The pandemic of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection has made widespread impact recently. We aim to investigate the clinical characteristics of COVID-19 children with different severities and allergic status. Pediatric COVID-19 patients tended to have a mild clinical course. Patients with pneumonia had higher proportion of fever and cough and increased inflammatory biomarkers than those without pneumonia. There was no difference between allergic and non-allergic COVID-19 children in aspects of incidence, clinical features, laboratory and immunological findings. Allergy was not a risk factor for developing and severity of SARS-CoV-2 infection and hardly influenced the disease course of COVID-19 in children.
Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), a respiratory tract infection caused by a novel human coronavirus, the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2, leads to a wide spectrum of clinical manifestations ranging from asymptomatic cases to patients with mild and severe symptoms, with or without pneumonia. Given the huge influence caused by the overwhelming COVID-19 pandemic affecting over three million people worldwide, a wide spectrum of drugs is considered for the treatment in the concept of repurposing and off-label use. There is no knowledge about the diagnosis and clinical management of the drug hypersensitivity reactions that can potentially occur during the disease. This review brings together all the published information about the diagnosis and management of drug hypersensitivity reactions due to current and candidate off-label drugs and highlights relevant recommendations. Furthermore, it gathers all the dermatologic manifestations reported during the disease for guiding the clinicians to establish a better differential diagnosis of drug hypersensitivity reactions in the course of the disease.