loading page

Mechanisms of action and adverse effects of the major therapeutic agents in trial for COVID-19 therapeutics: review of literature
  • +3
  • Emeka Ogiji,
  • Obumneme Ezeanosike,
  • Casimir Ofor,
  • Edak Ezeanosike,
  • Charles Maduba,
  • Samuel Ghasi
Emeka Ogiji
Ebonyi State University Faculty of Clinical Medicine
Author Profile
Obumneme Ezeanosike
Alex Ekwueme Federal University Teaching Hospital Abakaliki
Author Profile
Casimir Ofor
Ebonyi State University
Author Profile
Edak Ezeanosike
Alex Ekwueme Federal University Teaching Hospital Abakaliki
Author Profile
Charles Maduba
Alex Ekwueme Federal University Teaching Hospital Abakaliki
Author Profile
Samuel Ghasi
University of Nigeria, University of Nigeria
Author Profile

Abstract

Coronavirus disease 2019, an infectious viral disease caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 has been declared a global pandemic by World Health Organisation. The race to find an effective cure for it is on. Most of the candidate drugs in various clinical trials are being re-purposed but none has been approved as at date. It is pertinent for the bedside physicians to understand the mechanisms of action of these agents and their peculiar adverse effects so they are properly guided on the risk/benefit of the drugs they choose in managing COVID-19 patients. In this review, we aimed to review the mechanisms of action and adverse effects of the major drugs in clinical trials for COVID-19 therapeutics. Clinicaltrials.gov, the international clinical trials platform of the WHO, the EU clinical trials register and the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials were searched for registered clinical trials. Studies in therapeutic trials were considered eligible for the work. Frequency table was made for the most common trialled drugs and the mechanisms of actions and adverse effects of the selected drugs were reviewed. 10 studies were selected for review in a descending order of their frequency in different therapeutic trials and these are ritonavir, lopinavir, chloroquine/hydroxychloroquine, interferon, remdesvir, favipravir, umifenovir, darunavir, tocilizumab and methylprednisolone. The bedside physicians need to understand the mechanisms of action of these agents and their peculiar adverse effects so they are properly guided on the risk/benefit of the drugs they choose in managing COVID-19 patients.