Neurons and mechanism of epileptic associated genes in brain network: current concepts and future perspectives
AbstractNeurons are the basic cell structure of the nervous system and responsible for the communication between brain and body. Brain networks are formed from a single neuron to highly complexed interconnected (˷ 100 billion) neurons. Imbalances between excitation and inhibition mechanism of neuronal cells leads to altered brain network causing seizure/epileptic activity. The mechanism is known as an ictogenic mechanism. In particular, epilepsy is characterized by abnormal neuronal cells and several genetic factors are attributed for their development. CHRNA4 is the first epileptic gene discovered in an autosomal dominant nocturnal frontal lobe epilepsy (ADNFLE). Since, the era of epileptic genetics has reached to peaks and still extending the branches to study in detail to solve the mysteries behind the brain and epileptic/seizure genes. However, genes such as AQP4, SESN3, ARX, NTNG1, NTNG2, TSC1 and TSC2 need more attention in epilepsy genetic studies. Therefore, this review describes brain network during epilepsy (recurrent seizure) as well as deals with recent studies on molecular genetics and identification methods of epilepsy.