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Is Cardiorespiratory Disease associated with increased susceptibility of SARS-CoV-2 in Children?
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  • Cassidy Du Berry,
  • Thomas Saunders,
  • Alissa McMinn,
  • Shidan Tosif,
  • Shivanthan Shanthikumar,
  • Moya Vandeleur,
  • Joanne Harrison,
  • David Burgner,
  • Sarath Ranganathan,
  • Nigel Crawford,
  • Danielle Wurzel
Cassidy Du Berry
Murdoch Childrens Research Institute
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Thomas Saunders
Murdoch Childrens Research Institute
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Alissa McMinn
Murdoch Childrens Research Institute
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Shidan Tosif
Murdoch Childrens Research Institute
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Shivanthan Shanthikumar
The Royal Children's Hospital Melbourne
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Moya Vandeleur
Murdoch Childrens Research Institute
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Joanne Harrison
The Royal Children's Hospital Melbourne
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David Burgner
Murdoch Childrens Research Institute
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Sarath Ranganathan
Murdoch Childrens Research Institute
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Nigel Crawford
Murdoch Childrens Research Institute
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Danielle Wurzel
Murdoch Childrens Research Institute
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Abstract

Background There are limited data in paediatric populations evaluating whether chronic cardiorespiratory conditions are associated with increased risk of COVID-19. We aimed to compare the rates of chronic cardiac and respiratory disease in children testing positive (SARS-CoV-2[+]) compared to those testing negative (SARS-CoV-2[-]) at our institution. Method Prospective cohort with nested case-control study of all children tested by PCR for SARS-CoV-2 by nasopharyngeal/oropharyngeal sampling between March and October 2020. Children were identified prospectively via laboratory notification with age and sex-matching of SARS-CoV-2[+] to SARS-CoV-2[-] (1:2). Clinical data were extracted from the electronic medical record. Results In total, 179 SARS-CoV-2[+] children (44% female, median age 3.5 yrs, range 0.1 to 19.0 yrs) were matched to 391 SARS-CoV-2[-] children (42% female, median age 3.7 yrs, range 0.1 to 18.3 yrs). The commonest co-morbidities showed similar frequencies in the SARS-CoV-2[+] and [-] groups: asthma (n = 9, 5% vs n = 17, 4.4%, p = 0.71), congenital heart disease (n = 6, 3.4% vs n = 7, 1.8%, p = 0.25) and obstructive sleep apnoea (n = 4, 2.2% vs n = 10, 2.3%, p = 0.82). In the SARS-CoV-2 group, the prevalence of symptomatic disease was similar amongst children with and without cardiorespiratory comorbidities (n = 12, 75% vs n = 103, 57%, p = 0.35) who tested positive. A high proportion of children hospitalised with SARS-CoV-2 infection had cardiac comorbidities (23.8%). Conclusions In this single site dataset, rates of pre-existing cardiorespiratory disease were similar in SARS-CoV-2[+] and SARS-CoV-2[-] children. High rates of comorbid cardiac disease were observed amongst hospitalised children with COVID-19, warranting further research to inform public health measures and vaccine prioritisation.

Peer review status:UNDER REVIEW

06 Apr 2021Submitted to Pediatric Pulmonology
07 Apr 2021Assigned to Editor
07 Apr 2021Submission Checks Completed
27 Apr 2021Reviewer(s) Assigned
26 May 2021Review(s) Completed, Editorial Evaluation Pending