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Molecular Insights on the Pathophysiology and Treatment of COVID-19
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  • Hussin Rothan,
  • Arpan Acharya ,
  • St Patrick Reid,
  • Siddappa Byrareddy
Hussin Rothan
Georgia State University
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Arpan Acharya
University of Nebraska Medical Center
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St Patrick Reid
University of Nebraska Medical Center
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Siddappa Byrareddy
University of Nebraska Medical Center
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Abstract

The SARS-CoV-2 infection has been considered a global pandemic due to its widespread transmission and high rate of fatality. As of April 11, 2020, globally, there are 1.76 million confirmed cases of COVID-19, of which 108,281 people succumbed to the disease. In the absence of therapeutic intervention and a possible vaccine candidate, the spread of the disease and associated fatalities are on the rise. The epidemiological data indicate age and country-specific bias in the spread and severity of COVID-19. In this review, we discussed the recent update on the pathogenesis of SARS-CoV-2 among men and women, including children. Further, we also discuss the role of the cellular receptors and co-receptors used by the virus to enter host cells in the virus pathogenesis on differential infection among men and women. Further, highlighted the co-morbidity of COVID-19 with cardio-metabolic disease, and the potential treatments to control SARS-CoV-2 infection. Finally, we summarize the prospective treatment options that have been evaluated or are in the pipeline at different stages of clinical trials to fight against COVID-19.