Background: The present study aimed at evaluating the feasibility of using presystolic wave as an indicator of early myocardial damage in patients with essential hypertension. Methods: The present study included 90 patients diagnosed with hypertension. The patients were divided into two groups on the basis of whether they exhibited the presence of PSW (n = 64, age: 56 ±11 years) or its absence (n = 26, age: 58 ±13 years), as revealed by the results of left ventricular outflow Doppler echocardiography. The levels of Heart-type free fatty acid-binding protein were compared between the two groups. Results: In the 90 hypertensive patients included in the present study, the prevalence of presystolic wave was determined to be 71%. The Heart-type free fatty acid-binding protein levels in the non-PSW patients were observed to be statistically higher than those in the PSW patients [4.88 ng/mL (2.82–17.83) vs. 3.99 ng/mL (2.57–17.87), p = 0.041]. Even though the ejection fractions and the left ventricular diameters were within the normal limits for the patients of both the groups, the value for the left ventricular end-diastolic diameter was observed to be statistically higher in the non-PSW group. No differences were observed in the mitral flow parameters between the two groups. Conclusion: The present study demonstrated that the absence of presystolic wave in the hypertensive patients with preserved left ventricular ejection fraction is an indicator of subclinical myocardial damage. The hypertensive patients exhibiting the absence of the presystolic wave should be strictly followed up for cardiac complications.
Background: Even though hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM) can be distinguished from the athlete’s heart with a difference in echocardiographic measurements, difficulties may be encountered in clinical practice from time to time. The aim of this study was to evaluate the use of presystolic A wave (PSAW) assessed by the Doppler echocardiography for differentiating between HCM and athlete’s heart. Methods: A total of 52 subjects were included in the present study, of which, 27 had HCM and 25 were athletes. The pulsed Doppler assessment of the left ventricular outflow tract was performed on the ventricular face from the immediate proximal of the aortic valve on the apical five-chamber view. Allpatients were assessed for the presence of PSAW,and the velocity of this wave was recordedin PSAW positive subjects. Results: The frequency of PSAW was found to be higher in patients with HCM [n = 12 (44%)] than in athletes [n = 4 (16%)] (p = 0.026). PSAW velocity measurements were observed to be higher in the HCM group; however, there was no statistical significance [53 ms (36–84)], [68 ms (35–193)], (p = 0.362). Conclusion: While there is a need for scaling-up similar studies, the current findings suggest that PSAW can be used as a distinguishing parameter for differentiating HCM and athlete’s heart.