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Sex-Related Differences in COVID-19 Lethality
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  • Claudia Penna,
  • Valentina Mercurio,
  • Carlo Tocchetti,
  • Pasquale Pagliaro
Claudia Penna
University of Turin School of Medicine
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Valentina Mercurio
Federico II University Hospital
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Carlo Tocchetti
University of Naples Federico II
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Pasquale Pagliaro
University of Torino
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Abstract

Many Western countries have been affected by the outbreak of COVID-19. Italy has been particularly hit at the beginning of the pandemic, immediately after China. In Italy and elsewhere women seem to be less affected then men by severe/fatal COVID-19 infection, regardless of their age. Despite the evidence that women and men are different fort this infection, very few studies consider different therapeutic approaches for the two sexes. Undoubtedly, understanding the mechanisms at the bases of these differences may help to find appropriate and sex specific therapies. Here we consider that other mechanisms but estrogen protection are involved. Several X-linked genes (such as ACE2) and Y-linked genes (SRY, SOX9) may explain sex differences. Cardiovascular comorbidities are among the major enhancers of virus lethality. In addition, the number of sex-independent non-genetic factors that can change susceptibility and mortality is enormous, and many other factors are likely to be considered, including gender and cultural habits in different countries.

Peer review status:ACCEPTED

22 May 2020Submitted to British Journal of Pharmacology
26 May 2020Submission Checks Completed
26 May 2020Assigned to Editor
28 May 2020Reviewer(s) Assigned
09 Jun 2020Editorial Decision: Revise Minor
14 Jun 20201st Revision Received
15 Jun 2020Submission Checks Completed
15 Jun 2020Assigned to Editor
16 Jun 2020Reviewer(s) Assigned
25 Jun 2020Review(s) Completed, Editorial Evaluation Pending
27 Jun 2020Editorial Decision: Revise Minor
30 Jun 20202nd Revision Received
01 Jul 2020Submission Checks Completed
01 Jul 2020Assigned to Editor
02 Jul 2020Reviewer(s) Assigned
07 Jul 2020Review(s) Completed, Editorial Evaluation Pending
10 Jul 2020Editorial Decision: Accept