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The future of ocean governance
  • +18
  • Bianca Haas,
  • Mary Mackay,
  • Camilla Novaglio,
  • Liam Fullbrook,
  • Michael Murunga,
  • Carla Sbrocchi,
  • Jan Mcdonald,
  • Phillipa C Mccormack,
  • Karen Alexander,
  • Maree Fudge,
  • Lyn Goldsworthy,
  • Fabio Boschetti,
  • Ian Dutton,
  • Leo Dutra,
  • Jeffrey Mcgee,
  • Yannick Rousseau,
  • Erica Spain,
  • Robert Stephenson,
  • Joanna Vince,
  • Chris Wilcox,
  • Marcus Haward
Bianca Haas
Future Seas
Author Profile
Mary Mackay
Centre for Marine Socioecology, University of Tasmania, CSIRO, Oceans and Atmosphere
Camilla Novaglio
Centre for Marine Socioecology, University of Tasmania, CSIRO, Oceans and Atmosphere
Liam Fullbrook
Centre for Marine Socioecology, University of Tasmania, School of Social Sciences, College of Arts, Law and Education, University of Tasmania
Michael Murunga
Centre for Marine Socioecology, University of Tasmania, Institute for Marine and Antarctic Studies
Carla Sbrocchi
Centre for Marine Socioecology, University of Tasmania, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences, University of Technology Sydney
Jan Mcdonald
Centre for Marine Socioecology, University of Tasmania, Faculty of Law, University of Tasmania
Phillipa C Mccormack
Centre for Marine Socioecology, University of Tasmania, Faculty of Law, University of Tasmania
Karen Alexander
Centre for Marine Socioecology, University of Tasmania, Institute for Marine and Antarctic Studies
Maree Fudge
Centre for Marine Socioecology, University of Tasmania, Institute for Marine and Antarctic Studies
Lyn Goldsworthy
Centre for Marine Socioecology, University of Tasmania, Institute for Marine and Antarctic Studies
Fabio Boschetti
Centre for Marine Socioecology, University of Tasmania, CSIRO Oceans and Atmosphere, Crawley
Ian Dutton
Centre for Marine Socioecology, University of Tasmania, Department of Primary Industries
Leo Dutra
Centre for Marine Socioecology, University of Tasmania, CSIRO Oceans and Atmosphere
Jeffrey Mcgee
Centre for Marine Socioecology, University of Tasmania, Faculty of Law, University of Tasmania, Institute for Marine and Antarctic Studies
Yannick Rousseau
Centre for Marine Socioecology, University of Tasmania, Institute for Marine and Antarctic Studies
Erica Spain
Institute for Marine and Antarctic Studies
Robert Stephenson
Centre for Marine Socioecology, University of Tasmania, St. Andrews Biological Station, University of New Brunswick, Fisheries and Oceans
Joanna Vince
Centre for Marine Socioecology, University of Tasmania, School of Social Sciences, College of Arts, Law and Education, University of Tasmania
Chris Wilcox
Centre for Marine Socioecology, University of Tasmania, CSIRO, Oceans and Atmosphere
Marcus Haward
Centre for Marine Socioecology, University of Tasmania, Institute for Marine and Antarctic Studies

Abstract

Ocean governance is complex and influenced by multiple drivers and actors with different worldviews and goals. While governance encompasses many elements, in this paper we focus on the processes that operate within and between states, civil society and local communities, and the market, including industry. Specifically, in this paper, we address the question of how to move towards more sustainable ocean governance aligning with the sustainable development goals and the UN Ocean Decade. We address three major risks to oceans that arise from governance-related issues: 1) the impacts of the overexploitation of marine resources; 2) inequitable distribution of access to and benefits from marine ecosystem services, and 3) inadequate or inappropriate adaptation to changing ocean conditions. The SDGs have been used as an underlying framework to develop these risks. We identify five drivers that may determine how ocean governance evolves, namely formal rules and institutions, evidence and knowledge-based decision-making, legitimacy of decision-making institutions, stakeholder engagement and participation, and empowering communities. These drivers were used to define two alternative futures by 2030: (a) ‘Business as Usual’ - a continuation of current trajectories and (b) ‘More Sustainable Future’ – optimistic, transformational, but technically achievable. We then identify what actions, as structured processes, can reduce the three major governance-related risks and lead to the More Sustainable Future. These actions relate to the process of co-creation and implementation of improved, comprehensive, and integrated management plans, enhancement of decision-making processes, and better anticipation and consideration of ambiguity and uncertainty.