Introduction Belonging to the group of nitrated polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (NPAH), this 1-nitropyrene (1-NP) molecule, shown in Figure 1, often comes out as a dominant by-product of incomplete combustions from coal, diesel engines from mobile and stationary sources, cigarette smoke, cooked meat products and biomass burning. Aside from its dispersion in the atmosphere with concentrations arriving up to 57 pg/m3 in the air over urban and suburban areas, these hydrocarbons can deposit to ambient fine particulate matter (PM 2.5) which can spread towards inland bodies of water to be accumulated by aquatic species and then also reach towards human health mainly by inhalation, thereby posing respiratory risks. In fact, it has been listed as an International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) Group 2A carcinogen which indicates probable carcinogenicity and high respiratory health risk to humans .
With a lot of wastes being thrown and diffused to the soil, it is noteworthy to acknowledge the current mechanisms to address these accumulations. This short review provides a survey on soil bioremediation methods probable for treating different organic and inorganic wastes. Benefits and limitations of these methods are also acknowledged.