L-lysine amino acid is cocrystallized with L-mandelic acid by the slow evaporation method. Single crystal X-ray analysis reveals that lysine-mandelic acid crystallized as a dihydrate form. In the crystalline state, the lysine molecule exists in the cationic form in which the backbone and side chain amino groups are protonated and the carboxylic acid is deprotonated. The carboxylic acid proton of the mandelic acid is transferred to the lysine side chain and thus carries a negatively charged ion. The lattice water molecules are located near the amino groups of the lysine. Intermolecular interactions formed between lysinium, mandelate and lattice water molecules are qualitatively analyzed using Hirshfeld surfaces and 2D-fingerprint plots. The energetics of different dimeric complexes is quantitatively analyzed using PIXEL energy analysis. Topological parameters derived from QTAIM framework are used to delineate the nature of different intermolecular interactions formed in the title complex.
CONSTANS-LIKE (COL) family members are commonly implicated in light signal transduction during early photomorphogenesis. However, some of their functions remain unclear. Here we propose a role for COL13 on the hypocotyl elongation in Arabidopsis thaliana. We found that COL13 RNA accumulates to high levels in hypocotyl, and that disruption of COL13 function via T-DNA insertion or RNAi led to longer hypocotyl of Arabidopsis seedlings in red light. On the contrary, overexpression of COL13 resulted in shorter hypocotyl. With various genetic, genomic and biochemical assays, we proved that another COL protein named COL3 directly bound to the promoter of COL13, and the promoter region of COL3 was targeted by the transcription factor LONG HYPOCOTYL 5 (HY5), to form a HY5-COL3-COL13 regulatory chain for regulating hypocotyl elongation in red light. In addition, further study demonstrated that COL13 interacted with COL3 and COL13 promoted the interaction between COL3 and CONSTITUTIVE PHOTOMORPHOGENIC1 (COP1), suggesting a possible COP1-dependent COL3-COL13 feedback pathway. Our results provides new information regarding the genes network in mediating hypocotyl elongation.
Chloroplasts, the site of the primary reactions of photosynthesis, are organelles capable of independent protein synthesis, but which depend on the nucleus for most polypeptides. The process of photosynthesis is especially sensitive to environmental conditions and the composition of the photosynthetic apparatus can be modulated in response to environmental change. This acclimation process requires close communication between chloroplast and nucleus. Here we present evidence that the form in which carbon is exported from the chloroplast encodes information about the metabolic status of the photosynthetic apparatus which in turn controls photosynthetic acclimation.
1. Global warming is rapidly emerging as a universal threat that could alter the distribution of many animal species and change their morphology, physiology, behavior and life history. The heat dissipation limitation (HDL) hypothesis proposes that females’ reproductive performance is limited by their capacity to dissipate heat. Although exposure to wind is known to increase heat exchange, its effect on reproductive performance is unknown. 2. In this study, the effect of simulated wind on the energy budget and milk energy output of female striped hamsters (Cricetulus barabensis) was measured under cool (21°C) and hot (32.5°C) ambient temperatures and the preference of hamsters for windy conditions in lactating females was tested both in the laboratory and the wild. 3. Females lactating at 32.5°C significantly decreased their energy intake and milk output, and raised lighter offspring than those lactating at 21°C. Exposure to wind significantly increased both energy intake during lactation and heat loss at both temperatures. Females lactating at 32.5°C considerably increased their reproductive output when exposed to wind. Moreover, females kept at an ambient temperature of 21°C preferred sheltered conditions whereas those kept at 32.5°C preferred exposure to simulated wind. We captured significantly more lactating female hamsters on windy days in summer and on calm days in spring. Wrapping a glass vessel in the fresh pelt of a striped hamster significantly reduced the rate of both water loss and cooling. 4. These findings support the HDL hypothesis; high ambient temperatures do appear to limit the energy intake and reproductive output of lactating hamsters. Small mammals lactating under hot conditions may be able to utilize the cooling properties of wind to increase their energy intake and milk production, and thereby their reproductive output and fitness.
Silicon (Si) can alleviate Na+ toxicity by decreasing bypass flow in salt-stressed rice (Oryza sativa L.), however, the underlying mechanisms remain veiled. Here, we demonstrate how Si decreases bypass flow and alleviates salt toxicity at physiological and molecular levels by using two rice mutants (lsi1 and lsi2, defective in OsLsi1 and OsLsi2, respectively) and their wild types (WTs). Under salt stress, Si promoted plant growth and decreased Na+ root-to-shoot translocation in WTs, but not in mutants. Simultaneously, both quantitative estimation and fluorescent visualization of trisodium-8-hydroxy-1,3,6-pyrenetrisulphonic (PTS, an apoplastic tracer) show Si blocked bypass flow in WTs, but not in mutants. Energy-dispersive X-ray microanalysis (EDX) shows Si was deposited at root endodermis in WTs, but not in mutants. Moreover, root split experiment using lsi1 WT shows shoot Si accumulation down-regulated the expression of Si transport genes (OsLsi1 and OsLsi2) in root and accelerated Si deposition at root endodermis. In summary, our results reveal that 1) Si deposition at root endodermis reduces bypass flow, thereby alleviating salt toxicity in rice, and 2) the deposition of Si, which could be an active and physiologically-regulated process, is mediated by the cooperation of OsLsi1 and OsLsi2 and regulated by shoot Si accumulation.
Tropical forests are experiencing unprecedented high temperature conditions due to climate change that could limit their photosynthetic functions. We studied the high temperature sensitivity of photosynthesis in a rainforest site in southern Amazonia, where some of the highest temperatures and most rapid warming in the Tropics have been recorded. The quantum yield (Fv/Fm) of photosystem II was measured in seven dominant tree species using leaf discs exposed to varying levels of heat stress. T50 was calculated as the temperature at which Fv/Fm) was half the maximum value. T5 is defined as the breakpoint temperature, at which Fv/Fm) decline was initiated. Leaf thermotolerance in the rapidly warming Southern Amazonia was the highest recorded for forest tree species globally. T50 and T5 varied between species, with one mid storey species, Amaioua guianensis, exhibiting particularly high T50 and T5 values. While the T50 values of the species sampled were several degrees above the maximum air temperatures experienced in southern Amazonia, the T5 values of several species are now exceeded under present-day maximum air temperatures.
We consider a 2-D study of a plate with finite thickness and infinite extent. The upper plate surface is considered traction free and subjected to an axisymmetric heating. The lower surface is thermally insulated and layed on a rigid foundation. A cylindrical heat source affects the plate. This problem is relevant to the generalized thermoelasticity theory with one relaxation time. Laplace and Hankel transforms are considered. We use Inverse Hankel and Laplace transforms numerically. All related functions are showed graphically.
his study describes the response of Arthrospira platensis to a variety of temperature conditions as reflected in variations of photosynthetic parameters, pigmentation, and biomass productivity in indoor photobioreactor (PBR) cultivations. These experiments are designed to better understand the impact of temperature, seasonal variations, and acclimation effects on outdoor biomass production. The irradiance levels and temperature range (20 – 39°C) are chosen to enable modeling of semi-continuous operation of large-scale outdoor PBR deployments. Overall, the cultivations were quite stable with some pigment-related instabilities after prolonged high temperature exposure. Changes in productivity with temperature, as reflected in measured photosynthetic parameters, are immediate and mainly attributable to the temperature dependence of the photosaturation parameter, a secondary factor being variation in pigment content. This study confirms that temperature is critical for optimal performance of Arthospira platensis for both biomass and pigment production and provides a basis for risk assessments related to temperature mitigation for large-scale outdoor cultivations. Finally, the biomass productivities in a semi-continuous operation mode are quantitatively reproduced with a productivity model incorporating the photosynthetic parameters measured herein. Those productivities are in good agreement with extensive outdoor testing in PBR arrays at large scale (24,000 L) and over long time periods (up to 18 months).
This DFT study treats thermal metal-catalyzed alkene aziridination by azides, where the catalysts are copper(II) triflate, cobalt(II) porphin and ruthenium(II) porphin. Three azides RN3 (R = H, Me, Ac) react with alkene substrates in the presence of these catalysts leading to aziridine formation by a two-step catalysed mechanism. In Step I, the azide reacts with the catalyst to first form a metal nitrenoid via transition state TS1. The Ru(porph) catalyst is particularly effective for Step I. In Step II, the metal nitrenoid adds to the alkene via TS2 giving the aziridine product. Cu(trfl)2 is most effective as a catalyst for Step II. The facility order H > Me > Ac (with respect to the azide R group) holds for Step I, and the reverse order for Step II. Transition states TS1 and TS2 are described as “early” and “late”, respectively, in good accord with Hammond’s postulate.
Single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) have numerous advantages over microsatellites, including greater power to infer population structure and history and to detect loci undergoing selection. Here, we conduct the first continental-level SNP study of polar bears (Ursus maritimus) using genotypes from an array of 5441 SNP loci genotyped in 16–30 polar bears sampled in each of 16 geographic regions in Canada and West Greenland. Our study aimed to assess population history and genetic structure and to identify evidence of adaptive loci. Using these data, we confirmed the existence of four broad-scale genetic clusters in North America (FCT = 0.035) and identified nine fine-scale subclusters using more powerful spatial methods. An assessment of historical patterns of migration suggests that polar bears migrated into North America from the Beaufort Sea after the last glacial maximum. Using a conservative approach, we identified 17 loci that may represent adaptive variation, including one SNP in the 3’ untranslated region of PDLIM5 (PDZ And LIM Domain 5), a gene involved in cardiovascular function, which has undergone substantial selection in polar bears since their divergence from brown bears. Outlier loci differentiated the Norwegian Bay genetic cluster more strongly from remaining clusters than did our complete dataset, suggesting possible adaptive differences in the High Arctic. Through careful consideration of SNP loci, sample inclusion, and analytical approaches, we provide a comprehensive picture of polar bear population structure at a continental level. This study provides a model for the analysis of wide-ranging species that can contribute to their conservation and management.
In this paper, we study the asymptotic behavior of the discrete Kuramoto model on graphs. The main research method is: by using the theory of graph limits, we rigorously justify that the solutions of the initial value problems (IVPs) for the discrete Kuramoto model with external drive convergence to the solution of the initial value problem for its continuum limit on deterministic graphs, W-random graphs and SW graphs.
In this paper we are interested in two-dimensions fragmentation process that describes the evolution of an object having a rectangular shape. We focus on the non-homogenous fragmentation process where we break a rectangle according to a distribution that depends on its dimensions. Via Integral equations tools, we compute the mean and the variance of the distribution of the total number of the sub-rectangles obtained at the end of the process.
While most people know the rich flavors, pleasant tastes, and numerous health benefits of teas, various contaminations with chemicals for controling weeds, insects, microbial pathogens and other tea garden managements, become increasingly concerned on tea products. Meanwhile most of tea secondary metabolites concentrated in tea leaves, such as catechins, affeine, volatiles, saponins, and theanine, are synthesized primarily for defenses against both biotic and abiotic stresses. However, few use of these plant natural products for weed, pest and disease control by tea producers disabled the sustainable and safty production of teas. This is partly because the lacking of detailed information about biosynthesis, regulation, defense mechanism of these tea specialized metabolites due to chemical diversity and metabolic complexicity. An in-depth understanding of the biosynthesis, regulation, and defensive mechanisms of these specialized metabolites would greatly facilitate the employment of the innate immunity of tea plants to minimaize the use of other health-harmful chemicals. The review highlights relevant contexts of metabolic genomics of tea plants, so as to guaide future research on genetic improvement of tea plants for both safety and nutritional quality of teas.
Although photodynamic therapy (PDT) is an effective, minimally-invasive therapeutic modality with advantages in highly localized and specific tumor treatments, large and deep-seated cancers within the body cannot be successfully treated due to low transparency to visible light. To improve the therapeutic efficiency of tumor treatment in deep tissue and reduce the side effects in normal tissue, this study developed a near-infrared (NIR)-triggered upconversion nanoparticle (UCNP)-based photosensitizer (PS) carrier as a novel theranostics system. The NaYF4:Yb/Er UCNPs were synthesized by a hydrothermal method, producing uniformly small size (≈20 nm) nanoparticles and crystalline morphology of the hexagonal phase. These UCNPs were modified with folic acid-conjugated biocompatible block copolymers through a bidentate dihydrolipoic acid linker. The polymer modified hexagonal phase UCNPs (FA-PEAH-UCNPs) showed an improved dispersibility in the aqueous solution and strong NIR-to-vis upconversion fluorescence. The hydrophobic PS, pheophorbide a (Pha), was then conjugated to the stable vectors through a pH-sensitive linkage. Moreover, these UCNP-based Pha carriers containing tumor targeting folic acid ligands exhibited the significantly enhanced cellular uptake efficiency as well as PDT treatment efficiency. These results suggested that this system could extend the excitation wavelength of PDT to the NIR region and effectively improve therapeutic efficiency of PSs.
The biodiverse Neotropical ecoregion remains insufficiently assessed, poorly managed, and threatened by unregulated human activities. Novel, rapid and cost-effective DNA-based approaches are valuable to improve understanding of the biological communities and for biomonitoring in remote areas. Here, we evaluate the potential of environmental DNA (eDNA) metabarcoding for assessing the structure and distribution of fish communities by analysing sediments and water from 11 locations along the Jequitinhonha River catchment (Brazil). Each site was sampled twice, before and after a major rain event in a five-week period and fish diversity was estimated using high-through-put sequencing of 12S rRNA amplicons. In total, 252 Molecular Operational Taxonomic Units (MOTUs) and 34 fish species were recovered, including endemic, introduced, and previously unrecorded species for this basin. Spatio-temporal variation of fish assemblages was detected, richness during the first campaign was nearly twice as high as in the second sampling round; though peaks of diversity were primarily associated with only four locations. No correlation between β-diversity and longitudinal distance or presence of dams was detected, but low species richness observed at sites located near dams indicates that these anthropogenic barriers might have an impact on local fish diversity. Unexpectedly high α-diversity levels recorded at the river mouth suggest that these sections should be further evaluated as putative “eDNA reservoirs” for rapid monitoring. By uncovering spatio-temporal changes, unrecorded biodiversity components, and putative anthropogenic impacts on fish assemblages, we further strengthen the potential of eDNA metabarcoding as a biomonitoring tool, especially in regions often neglected or difficult to access.
In this manuscript, a two-port semi-circular patch antenna with Koch curve fractals is presented as a suitable candidate for portable UWB communication systems. The proposed fractal array is engraved on a 1.57 mm thick FR-4 substrate with an overall array size of 30.5 × 47 × 1.64 mm3. The upper substrate layer consists of two microstrip-line fed semi-circular patches combined with two Koch curve fractals (optimized up to 2nd order of iteration) separated by a distance of λ/2. To mitigate the effect of mutual coupling between the radiating elements, the lower substrate layer consists of a reduced ground plane with a funnel-shaped decoupling structure. To achieve a high degree of isolation (S21/S12 ≤ -16.8 dB) between the ports of the proposed array, two rectangular and L-shaped slots (mirror images of each other) are etched from the upper surface of the reduced ground. The design and simulation of the proposed antenna array is implemented in CST MWS’18. The optimized fractal array covers the simulated frequency band from 4.395-10.184 GHz with a fractional bandwidth of 79.4 % (at a center frequency of 5.789 GHz) and provides a peak radiation efficiency of 88.8% (at 6.2 GHz frequency). The antenna diversity performance is analyzed in terms of envelope correlation coefficient (ECC ≤ 0.0021), diversity gain (DG ≥ 9.989), mean effective gain (MEG ≥ -3.7 dB), channel capacity loss (CCL ≤ 0.4 bits/s/Hz) and total active reflection coefficient (TARC ≤ -10 dB). The experimentally measured S-parameter results show a good match with the simulated ones.
The synthetic rubber industry is of great importance and it is present in the daily life of world society. BR (butadiene rubber or polybutadiene) is one of the most used polymers in this field, mainly in tire production. Therefore, the control of operational conditions and final properties of the polymer formed are important points to be studied as they are a challenge for the industry. Thus, the present work focus in simulate the batch polymerization of polybutadiene using the Aspen Plus software, where 1,3-butadiene, titanium tetrachloride, triethylaluminium and hexane were used as monomer, catalyst, co-catalyst and solvent, respectively. Four cases were simulated changing the number of catalyst sites in order to predict and compare the final properties of polybutadiene resins including the average molecular weights, the molecular weight distribution and the evolution of operation conditions that are used at plant to monitor the course of the reaction like the reaction temperature and pressure.
Acquired drug resistance syndrom (ADR) is one of the most important features associated with tumor treatment and it is therefore a~topic of intensive studies. We present two simple mathematical models reflecting different mechanisms of ADR with some Darwinian effects included. These effects allow resistant cells to become sensitive again. Basing on this mathematical approach we conclude that for constant continuous treatment, if no Darwinian effects are present then once resistant cells appear, sensitive cells are eliminated after a long time, independently of the mechanism of acquiring the resistance. However, with Darwinian effects the situation is a little better as the sensitive cells are not completely eliminated but they are still outcompeted by the resistant ones. Moreover, if the therapy is stopped resistant cells become dominated by sensitive cells and the situation changes completely in comparison to the case without Darwinian effects. We discuss these mechanisms on the example of gliomas.