A 52-year-old man was admitted to our hospital for “CT-diagnosed thoracic-abdominal aortic aneurysm”. One week ago, the patient had repeated dry coughs and went to the local hospital for treatment. A chest radiograph revealed a huge mass in the left thoracic cavity. A further chest CT examination revealed a thoracic-abdominal aortic aneurysm and was transferred to our hospital for surgical treatment.The patient is almost healthy, with no fever, no severe chest and abdomen pain, no dyspnea, no dysphagia or other clinical symptoms. Ten years ago, the patient underwent “ascending aorta and total aortic arch replacement surgery” in another cardiovascular hospital due to aortic dissection involving the ascending aorta and aortic arch (Debakey I).The patient’s thoracic-abdominal aortic aneurysm is huge and has a high risk of rupture. Recently, the patient has undergone thoracic-abdominal aortic replacement surgery and is recovering well.
Lipomatous hypertrophy of the interatrial septum (LHIAS) is a benign cardiac tumor. Differential diagnosis of LHIAS consists of atrial masses such as myxomas or lipomas. Herein, we report a 66-year-old male, admitted as a case of severe COVID-19 and was found to have a LHIAS extending to the crista terminalis.
Coronary artery aneurysms are an uncommon disease whose incidence ranges from 0.3% to 5.3%. The right coronary artery is affected in 40-70% of cases. Percutaneous coronary angioplasty is among causative factors, in particular with stent implantation. We present a case of large post-angioplasty aneurysm of the right coronary artery requiring surgical correction.
How much troponin leak is too much before CABG?Clancy W. Mullan, MD and Arnar Geirsson, MDDivision of Cardiac SurgeryDepartment of SurgeryYale School of Medicine330 Cedar Street, BB204New Haven, CT 06511Acute myocardial infarction (MI) is a well-recognized risk factor for worse outcomes after coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG), and the proportion of patients undergoing CABG after MI appears to be increasing over time(1). With nearly a third of patients undergoing CABG having presented with MI, the question has been asked repeatedly of whether the degree of troponin leak correlates to post-operative outcomes, with conflicting results through the years(2, 3). In this edition of theJournal of Cardiac Surgery , Dr. Hess and colleagues present a compelling argument against the use of the degree of troponinemia in predicting major outcomes of surgical revascularization after non-ST elevation MI (NSTEMI). Principally, the authors demonstrate that neither troponin I leak above median nor increasing troponinemia independently predict mortality or major adverse cardiac or cerebrovascular events (MACCE). Secondarily, they find that multivariable adjustment obviates the association of peak troponin level with prolonged ventilation, prolonged intensive care unit stay, and prolonged hospital stay.With these data, the reader must ask: does there exist a residual argument for delaying surgical revascularization? A key observation in the present study is that nearly the entire cohort underwent urgent, rather than emergent or elective, revascularization. In the context of this relatively large cohort, this suggests a degree of stability to the “average” NSTEMI patient. Furthermore, given that the time from peak troponin to revascularization did not differ between the low- and high-risk cohorts and that time from peak troponin to surgery was not associated with post-operative mortality or MACCE, the data reported argue that patients can afford to wait for optimization prior to proceeding to surgery, certainly a controversial topic with a notable lack of society-level guidance that the authors appropriately address in their discussion. While the 2014 American Heart Association/American College of Cardiology guidelines for management of patients with NSTEMI provides some guidance on timing of surgical revascularization in relation to P2Y12 antiplatelet agent administration, no recommendations are provided on when to proceed with CABG otherwise. The authors findings seemingly fit directly on the middle of the debate’s metaphorical fence; however, interpretation of this is challenging given a lack of information such as time from presentation to peak troponin level, from presentation to coronary catheterization, or from catheterization to surgery.What should, then, dictate when to take a patient with NSTEMI to the operating room? There is no straightforward answer to this question, but, generally, these patients should proceed to surgery soon enough to prevent progression from a non-transmural to a transmural injury but late enough to avoids the bleeding risk of potent P2Y12 inhibitor loads (4, 5). While emergent revascularization is likely not warranted in the absence of arrythmias or evidence of continued ischemia, urgent revascularization within 24 hours should be encouraged barring prohibitive bleeding risk from an antiplatelet agent load. Interestingly, the authors did not find intra-aortic balloon pump (IABP) placement to be associated with post-operative mortality hazard, suggesting that IABPs were not especially targeted to unstable patients in their population. However, pre-operative inotrope requirement was associated with increased post-operative mortality, supporting an argument that NSTEMI patients, like their STEMI counterparts, with cardiogenic shock represent a particularly vulnerable population that should be revascularized with greater urgency. Where coronary anatomy demands surgical revascularization and cardiac surgical resources are not available, medical optimization followed by prompt referral to a surgical center is key.The tenacity with which the authors undertook the principal analyses of the manuscript should be commended. Hess et al. present a thorough and convincing argument that a patient’s risk from NSTEMI is likely fixed and dictated by the overall clinical picture rather than dependent on the degree of troponinemia and that the peak troponin level should not dictate clinical decisions.References1. Alkhouli M, Alqahtani F, Kalra A et al. Trends in characteristics and outcomes of hospital inpatients undergoing coronary revascularization in the united states, 2003-2016. JAMA Network Open 2020;3(2):e1921326-e1921326.2. Beller JP, Hawkins RB, Mehaffey JH et al. Does preoperative troponin level impact outcomes after coronary artery bypass grafting? The Annals of thoracic surgery 2018;106(1):46-51.3. Thielmann M, Massoudy P, Neuhäuser M et al. Prognostic value of preoperative cardiac troponin i in patients undergoing emergency coronary artery bypass surgery with non-st-elevation or st-elevation acute coronary syndromes. Circulation 2006;114(1 Suppl):I448-453.4. Amsterdam EA, Wenger NK, Brindis RG et al. 2014 aha/acc guideline for the management of patients with non-st-elevation acute coronary syndromes: A report of the american college of cardiology/american heart association task force on practice guidelines. Circulation 2014;130(25):e344-426.5. Hillis LD, Smith PK, Anderson JL et al. 2011 accf/aha guideline for coronary artery bypass graft surgery. Journal of the American College of Cardiology 2011;58(24):e123-e210.
The COVID-19 pandemic has raised concern of viral transmission during otolaryngological procedures by means of droplets/saliva. The use of PPE and isolation settings are mandatory during surgery. This paper describes the development of the STAPID setting to reduce salivary spread during a sialendoscopy-assisted transfacial removal of a parotid stone.
Remote communication in ENT has been expanding, spurred by the COVID-19 pandemic. Conferences and teaching have moved online, enabling easier participation, and reducing financial and environmental costs. Online multi-disciplinary meetings have recently been instigated in Africa to discuss management of cases in head and neck cancer, or cochlear implantation, expanding access and enhancing patient care. Remote patient consultation has also seen an explosion, but existing literature suggests some caution, particularly because many patients in ENT need an examination to enable definitive diagnosis. Ongoing experience and more research is needed to better understand how remote communication will fit into our future working lives, both during and after the pandemic.
Risk models were developed to provide clinicians and hospitals with a tool to evaluate risk-adjusted outcomes and to guide quality improvement. The Society of Thoracic Surgeons (STS) Predicted Risk of Mortality (PROM) is the most commonly used risk algorithm, others being the EuroSCORE logistic and additive algorithm and the Ambler Risk Score. These models utilize pre-operative patient characteristics to predict operative risk and early outcomes. Although a great deal of effort has gone into models to predict short-term patient outcomes after common cardiac operations, there has been relatively little effort to develop a statistical algorithm to predict long-term outcomes. Moreover, no risk model takes into account early post-operative complications to construct an algorithm to predict long-term outcomes. The formulation of a risk stratification score based on post-operative complications following common cardiac surgical procedures may be used to estimate the likelihood of long-term survival for individual complications, as well as various permutations and combinations of complications. This may have profound implications in devising strategies to prevent the most devastating combination of complications. Also, this may assist in informing patients and families of the predicted survival after a particular complication or a combination of complications. As Dokollari et all pointed out, there is impetus towards the direction of formulating a risk stratification score, and this may indeed be the need of the hour.
In this case report, we describe a rare large right ventricular fibroma with sudden chest pain in a 9 year old child. The tumor was successfully surgical removed under cardiopulmonary bypass, but there was only a small remnant of the tumor to avoid rupture of the right ventricle and injury to the tricuspid valve. Pathological examination confirmed that the tumor was fibrous borderline tumor. The patient's heart function and the size of atrium and ventricles were normal, and there was no tricuspid regurgitation at 3-months follow-up. It was reported that the age less than 17 years old at time of diagnosis are associated with a poor prognosis, the long term outcome for this children patient needs further follow-up.
A 36-year-old male with non-lesional refractory frontal-lobe epilepsy, diagnosed at 16 years of age, and with a history of four hospitalizations for refractory status epilepticus and admitted to the intensive care unit with focal seizures in the right upper limb, impaired consciousness, and recurrent progression to bilateral tonic-clonic seizures.
Currently, the only widely accepted indication for interventional treatment in cases of pulmonary embolism is hemodynamic instability or cardiogenic shock. However, the presence of a right-heart thrombus along with a pulmonary embolism is a poor prognostic indicator, and catheter-directed thrombolysis with the use of thrombolytic agents should also be considered in this circumstance. Optimal management of right heart thrombus and high-risk pulmonary embolism is still uncertain. Herein, we present the case of an 81-year-old woman who presented at our hospital after progressive dyspnea and a syncopal event. The transthoracic echocardiography showed massive bilateral pulmonary, right ventricular, and mobile atrial thrombus and also right-sided enlargement. The patient was successfully treated with acoustic pulse thrombolysis using the EKOS EkoSonic system and echocardiography revealed complete resolution of her right-heart thrombus and her high-risk pulmonary embolism 2 days later.
A 34-year-old woman presented due to progressive painful swelling around the nail of the right index finger. Onychectomy and drainage of the abscess of the affected finger were performed as the inflammation was progressive despite the previous antibiotic therapy. The microbiological culture revealed a ciprofloxacin-susceptible Citrobacter braakii.
The excellent review by Houmsse and Daoud of techniques and methods utilized to protect the esophagus from injury during atrial fibrillation (AF) ablation appropriately concludes that considering the ease of use, minimal side effects, and low costs associated with esophageal protection devices, compelling evidence exists for use of esophageal protection as routine care for AF ablation. Some additional data are available which would warrant inclusion in further consideration of this topic. Three recent studies have demonstrated the inability of LET monitoring to protect the esophagus, whereas meta-analysis of three studies of manual cooling using direct liquid instillation suggests that this approach significantly reduced high-grade lesion formation (OR of 0.39, 95% CI 0.17 to 0.89). Moreover, three studies using a commercially available cooling device FDA cleared for thermal regulation have shown reductions in esophageal lesion severity without degradation in ablation efficacy.
Introduction: Due to the high mortality of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), there are difficulties in the managing emergency department. We investigated whether the d-dimer/albumin ratio (DAR) and fibrinogen/albumin ratio (FAR) predicts mortality in the COVID-19 patients.Methods: A total of 717 COVID-19 patients who were brought to the emergency department from March to October 2020 were included in the study. Levels of d-dimer, fibrinogen, and albumin, as well as DAR, FAR, age, gender, and in-hospital mortality status of the patients were recorded. The patients were grouped by in-hospital mortality. Statistical comparison was conducted between the groups.Results: Of the patients included in the study, 371(51.7%) were male, and their median age was 64 years (50–74). There was in-hospital mortality in 126 (17.6%) patients. The area-under-the-curve (AUC) and odds ratio values obtained by DAR to predict in-hospital mortality were higher than the values obtained by the all other parameters (AUC of DAR, albumin, d-dimer, FAR, and fibrinogen: 0.773, 0.766, 0.757, 0.703, and 0.637, respectively; odds ratio of DAR>56.36, albumin<4.015, d-dimer>292.5, FAR>112.33, and fibrinogen>423: 7.898, 6.216, 6.058, 4.437, and 2.794, respectively). In addition; patients with concurrent DAR>56.36 and FAR>112.33 had an odds ratio of 21.879 with respect to patients with concurrent DAR<56.36 and FAR<112.33.Conclusion: DAR may be used as a new marker to predict mortality in COVID-19 patients. In addition the concurrent high DARs and FARs were found to be more valuable in predicting in-hospital mortality than either separately.Keywords: Covid-19, D-dimer, Fibrinogen, Serum Albumin, in-Hospital Mortality
We report an unusual finding of DCIS within a cystic lesion in a black man highlighting the need for adequate workup, and timely follow-up for men with breast/chest wall masses given the lack of screening in this population. Furthermore, we will explore how race contributes to prognosis and health outcomes.